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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Describe the layers of the Earth

Inner/ outer core- Solid core of iron and nickel

Mantle- Semi molten slow moving rock

Crust- Solid and 20km thick divided into plates

Describe the 2 types of plate

Oceanic- Thin and more dense

Continental- Thick and less dense

Describe the 3 types of plate margins

Destructive- where two plates move towards each other creating an ocean trench and volcano or a fold mountain

Constructive- where two plates move apart and magma rises to fill the gap then cools to create a new crust

Conservative- where plates move past each other and no crust is created or destroyed

How is a fold mountain formed?

Sedimentary rock between the two plates is forced upwards forming rocky mountains and valleys often with lakes

How and when were the Alps formed?

30 million years ago by collision of African and European plates

What is the population of the Alps?

12 million

What are 5 uses of the Alps? Describe them and give examples

Farming- Steep upland areas used to farm goats and some sunnier slopes terraced for vineyards

HEP- Narrow valleys dammed for HEP. Switzerland gets 60% of power from HEP

Tourism- over 100 million tourists visit each year. 70% for snow sports

Forestry- Scots pine planted rather than native pine as it can resist munching goats better

Mining- Alps has been used for mining gold, silver, copper and salt but has now mostly moved abroad

What are some problems in the Alps and how have they been overcome?

Limited communications- Tunnels under mountains and passes over valleys for quicker travel

Steep relief- Goats farmed as they are well adapted to steep slopes and avalanche and rock slide defences built

Poor soil- Animals farmed as soil often not good enough for growing crops

What are 3 different places volcanoes can be formed? How?

Destructive plate margin- Oceanic plates is sub ducted under continental and is melted in the mantle forming a pool of magma that rises through cracks in the crust called vents

Constructive plate margin- Magma rises into gap creating volcano

Hot spot- Volcanoes form over very hot parts of the mantle

Describe the 3 types of volcano

Composite cone- made from ash and lava in layers. made from thick lava which cools quickly and flows slowly making a steep sided volcano

Shield- Made only of lava. Lava is runny and cools slowly so goes over large area making a low flat volcano

Dome- Made only of lava. Lava is thick and cools slowly making a steep volcano

How can a volcano be predicted?

Tiny earthquakes, gas escaping and bulges where magma is building

When was the main eruption of the Montserrat volcano, has much material was released and how many people died?

June 25th 1997, 4 million meters cubed of material released and 19 killed

Where is Montserrat and what plate boundary is it at?

In a small island in the Caribbean in the Soufriere hills where the Atlantic plate goes under the Caribbean plate

What were the primary impacts of Montserrat?

Large areas covered in volcanic material

Capitol Plymouth buried under 12m of mud and ash

2/3 of the homes on island destroyed by pyroclastic flows

Schools, hospital and airport destroyed

Vegetation and farmland destroyed

19 killed 7 injured

What were the secondary impacts of Montserrat?

Fires destroyed buildings

Tourists stayed away and businesses destroyed

8000 of 1200 residents left

Ash improved soil fertility

Tourism has now increased as people want to see the volcano

What were the immediate responses to the Montserrat volcano?

People evacuated from the south

Shelters build to house refugees

Temporary roads and electricity supplies

UK provided £17 million in emergency aid as it is an overseas territory

Local emergency services provided a search and rescue support

What were the secondary responses to the Montserrat volcano?

Risk map created and exclusion zone in place

UK provided £41 million to develop north of island and for new docks and airport

Volcano observatory build to try to predict future eruptions

What two places can a super volcano form at? Which of these is yellowstone

A hotspot or a destructive plate margin. Yellowstone super volcano is at a hotspot

What happens to a super volcano at a hotspot?


What are the characteristics of a super volcano?

Flat, large and have a caldra

What would the consequences of an eruption at Yellowstone be?

Global consequences

Thousands of km cubes of ash and lava and rock

Pyroclastic flow would destroy everything in tens of miles

Ash will shoot high into the atmosphere and block out sun causing mini ice ages

Ash will settle over hundreds of square miles

When was the last super volcano?

74000 years ago

What causes an earthquake?

A build up of pressure between plates then they jerk past each other causing an earthquake

Where is the focus of an earthquake?

Where it happens

Where is the epicentre of an earthquake?

Point on surface directly above focus

Describe two ways in which an earthquake can be measured

Richter scale- measures amount of energy released with a seismometer. Logarithmic scale. No upper limit

Mercalli scale- from 1-12 based on effects by witness accounts

When was the Kobe earthquake, how deep was the focus and what was it on the Richter scale?

17th Jan 1995, shallow focus and 7.2 on the Richter scale

When was the Port au Prince earthquake, how deep was the focus and what was it on the Richter scale?

12th Jan 2010, shallow focus and 7 on the Richter scale

Compare the primary and secondary impacts of the Kobe and Port au Prince earthquakes


Compare the short and long term responses to the Kobe and Port au Prince earthquakes

What caused the 2004 boxing day tsunami?

An earthquake off the west coast of Sumatra

How high were some waves in the boxing day tsunami?

30 meters

Which countries did the boxing day tsunami effect?

Most countries bordering the Indian ocean including Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka

What made the effects of the boxing day tsunami even worse?

There is no early warning system in the Indian Ocean

How many people died or are missing from the boxing day tsunami?


How many lost homes in the boxing day tsunami?

1.7 million

How many people needed food water or medical supplies in the boxing day tsunami?

5 million

What was some economic damage in the boxing day tsunami?

Tourists don't visit and businesses destroyed

What was some environmental damage in the boxing day tsunami?

Salt killed plants and waves destroyed coral reefs

What were the short term responses to the boxing day tsunami?

£hundreds of millions pledged in days for water and medicine

Ships, planes and rescue teams sent

Foreign troops sent- Australia did air traffic control

UK government promised 75 million and public gave 100 million

UK sent medical and forensic teams

What were the long term responses to the boxing day tsunami?

Practice drills and evacuation routes set up

Billions pledged to rebuild infrastructure

Tsunami warning system now in place

Disaster management system now in place

Education on tsunamis in schools

Locals trained to recognise signs of a tsunami