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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What mountain range is considered the economic and agricultural core of Russia and the newly independent states?
Ural Mountains
Which of the following regions has a landscape characterized by taiga to the south and tundra to the north?
Which of the following occurred in the Soviet Union under Stalin's leadership?
Heavy industry became the main component of Soviet economic growth.
Which of the following is a population trend in Russia that has resulted from the deterioration of human well-being that began in the early 1990s?
Adult life expectancy has declined.
Despite GDP figures that indicate falling incomes, why are many Russians actually somewhat better off than official statistics suggest?
Many are taking advantage of opportunities in the informal economy.
Which of the following describes a trend in Russian politics since the collapse of the Soviet Union?
Women have lost political representation.
What was the source of the social safety net during the Soviet era?
A person's place of work
The shrinking of the Aral Sea is mainly a result of what activity?
Which of the following has been a main source of conflict for the countries of Caucasia?
Oil reserves in the Caspian Sea
What country is comparable to France in terms of its agricultural output, size, and population?
Which of the following is a type of vegetation most likely to be found in the tundra landscape of Siberia?
Mosses and lichens
What river and its tributaries flow into the Arctic Ocean making it useless as a trade route?
How have the mountain ranges such as the Caucuses and the Hindu Kush influenced the spread of culture and religion in this world region?
The mountains have not deterred a long history of cultural and religious exchange.
What governing Russian group eventually introduced and managed a command economic system in the Russian Empire?
The Bolsheviks
What is most likely the reason why western Siberia was the first region to be annexed by Russians in the 1600s?
Mineral resources
Which of the following is a true characteristic of the Soviet command economy, put in place by the Communist party in the early 1900s?
Production methods were inefficient, often producing unpredictable surpluses and shortages.
What statement represents the current status of oil exportation from Russia?
Russia is expanding its exports of oil to include many countries of western Europe and small markets in the United States.
The text uses the term oligarchy when discussing present-day politics in Russia and the newly independent states. Which statement best defines this term?
High officials are elected but are overly influenced by powerful and wealthy elites.
During the Soviet era how were minority groups viewed by the government?
Minority groups were viewed as culturally marginal people that were in need of modernization and civilization.
What statement best describes the cultural status of ethnic groups within the newly independent countries in the post-Soviet era?
Relaxed governmental control has resulted in the reassertion of cultural identity by many minority groups.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the status of women as laborers in Russian society?
Women were generally considered better educated on average than men during the Soviet era.
What has contributed to the nuclear contamination of the Arctic Ocean?
Migrating Wildlife
Dumping Nuclear waste
Which of the following is a river that has been diverted contributing to the shrinking of the Aral Sea?
Syr Darya
What physical feature covers 60% of the Siberian landscape and inhibits the growth of agricultural crops?
In what part of Siberia does a majority of its 33 million people live?
The warmer southern quarter
What country, as a result of its increased agricultural production, may soon be competing with France in production of fruits, vegetables, and wines?
What provides for the warm moist climate experienced in the countries of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan?
Their location between the Black and Caspian seas
What section of Moldova is its richest and most industrialized, leading to interests in control by Russia and Romania?
In what country of the Central Asian Republics has the dramatic physical landscape shaped the development of distinct ethnic groups?
What subregion provided most citrus, tea, grapes, and wine during the Soviet era?
Define Mongols
A loose confederation of nomadic pastoral people centered in eastern Central Asia, who by the 13th Century conquered an empire stretching from Europe to the Pacific
Define Slavs.
A group of farmers who originated between the Dnieper and Vistula Rivers, in modern-day Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus.
Define Steppes.
Semiarid, grass covered plains
Define Serfs.
Persons legally bound to live and farm on land owned by the lord
Define Permafrost.
Permanently frozen soil a few feet beneath the surface
Define Socialism.
A social system in which the production and distribution of goods are owned collectively, and political power is exercised by the whole community
Define Tundra.
A treeless area between the ice cap and the tree line of arctic regions, which has a permanently frozen subsoil
Define Thermal Pollution
The return of unnaturally hot water to the environment, as by industrial processes or hydro and nuclear power plants
Define Taiga.
Northern coniferous forest
Define Russian Federation
Russia and its political subunits, which include 30 internal republics and more than 10 so-called autonomous regions
Define Privatization
The sale of industries formerly owned and operated by the government to private companies or individuals
Define Glasnost
An opening up of public discussion of social and economic problems, which occurred under Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980's
Powerful elites that wield influence because of their enormous wealth.L
Define Perestroika
A restructuring of the Soviet economic system in the late 1980's in an attempt to revitalize the economy
Define Czar
A ruler of the Russian Empire; derived from "Ceasar," the title of the Roman emperors
Define Chernozem
Black fertile soils of the region stretching south from Moscow toward the Black and Caspian Seas
Define Command Economy
An economy in which government bureaucrats plan, locate, and manage all production and distribution
Define Communist Party
The political party that ruled the former Russian Empire from 1917 to 1991
Define Nonpoint sources of pollution
Diffuse sources of environmental contamination, such as untreated automobile exhaust, raw sewage, and agriculture chemicals that drain from fields into the urban water supplies
Define Communism
An ideology based largely on the writings of the German revolutionary Karl Marx, which calls on workers to unite to overthrow capitalists and establish an egalitarian society where workers share whatever they produce
Define Capitalists
A wealthy minority that owns the majority of factories, farms, businesses, and other means of production
Define Group of Seven (G7)
An organization of the most highly industrialized nations, now sometimes called Group of Eight (G8) when Russia is invited to meetings
Define Bolsheviks
A faction of communists who came to power during the Russian Revolution
Define Internal Republics
More than 30 ethnic enclaves in Russia, whose political status and relationship to the Russian state are continuously being renegotiated republic by republic
What physical feature separates European Russian and western Siberia?
The Ural Mountains
What is the deepest lake in the world and where is it located?
Lake Baikal in Siberia, Russia
does permafrost prevent development in much of Siberia?
Restrict crops that can be grown and curtail overall agricultural production.
What river serves as the prominent transport connection between the northern and southern parts of European Russia?
The Volga River
Who was Karl Marx and what impact did he have on the creation of the Soviet Union?
German revolutionary philosopher who created the ideology of communism; he criticized Europe because they were capitalists
Communism, as a social movement, is defined as one that seeks what?
1. Removes social classes and private ownership
2. Keeps the means of production in the hands of a few
3. Encourages private ownership
4. Rejects all authority
Who were the Bolsheviks?
Highly disciplined faction of revolutionaries who were inspired by communism. They formed the Communist Party that set up a powerful government in Moscow and led Russia into a transition period that would orchestrate the economy and start industrialization.
Who was V.I. Lenin
Vladmir Lenin was the leader of the Bolsheviks.
Who was Stalin?
After Lenin, He ruled the Soviet Union and created a centrally planned, or command, economy. He believed in Socialism, government-controlled economic system, to increase industrial production to achieve economic growth. He used secret police, starvation, and mass execution.
How does a command economy work?
The state owned all real estate and means of production, while the bureaucrats directed all economic activity; factory locations, production, management, distribution of products, and pricing.
What Soviet activities resulted in the cold war with the United States?
The Soviet Union installed undemocratic Communist regimes across eastern Europe
What was Gosplan?
1. Formed Socialism
2. Increased industrialization
3. Forming Collectives
4. Military Build-up
What does glasnost mean and how did it work?
Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev opened public discussions of social and economic problems. It works through perestroika, or restructuring economy.
What atrocity did Stalin commit during the time he was leading the Soviet Union?
1. Secret Police
2. Starvation
3. Mass Executions
Resulting in at least 20 million deaths
What were the two main focuses of the communist economy????
1. Unite workers to overthrow capitalists
2. Establish an egalitarian society where workers share what the produce
Under which leader did heavy industry and collectivization become the main components of Soviet economic growth?
What were the major problems the Soviet Union faced in industrializing Siberia?
Long winters
Swampy forestlands
Complex upland landscapes
In what sub region do most of Russia's citizens reside???
What are the main efforts of Europe and the United States to bring Russia into closer formal association with established trading institutions?
Russia is scheduled to become part of the World Trade Organization and is the newest member of the Group of Eight
What severe environmental problems are the Central Asian countries experiencing (i.e. agriculture and the Aral Sea)?
Large-scale irrigation projects in Central Asia is causing the Aral Sea to disappear, resulting in a climate change, air and water pollution, desertification, and chronic illnesses.
In the text, what do the authors argue is likely to inhibit the effort to reduce environmental degradation in the former Soviet Union?
The economy slowed markedly; the domestic demand and international price decreased.
How would the female labor force be described in Russia during the last decade or so compared to the male labor force?
70% of women are unemployed. President Gorbachev believes the role of soviet women is domestic.
What are the characteristics of the Caucasian countries?
Subtropical intermountain valley
Grows citrus fruits and bananas
Longer Lifespan
How has the independence of many of the former members of the Soviet Union caused unrest in parts of Russia (i.e. Chechnya)?
To the Russians, this declaration is dangerous and poses a threat to Russia's long term security. Russia wants access to an oil transit but Chechnya wants the rights to their own resources and protects them by using guerrilla warfare with Russia
What religion predominates in Central Asia?
In post-Soviet Russia, despite the introduction of democratic policies, who makes most of the decisions regarding national policy?
Oligarchs, people who wield power because of their enormous wealth.
Why is the informal economy hurting Russia today?
because Governments are unable to collect tax revenue the economy and the government's obligations are not being covered.
In post-Soviet Russia, what is the result of the Russian government's removal of price controls allowing goods to sell at their market price?
Overall, People suffered. At first, prices skyrocketed because of scarcities and many spent their savings to pay for necessities. Eventually, the supply of goods increased and prices fell.
What are some of the many contributions to the frustrations and malaise experienced by Russian laborers in the post-Soviet era?
Privatization has caused many laborers to lose their stable jobs.
What is the gap between male and female life expectancy
13 years
What are some of the suggested reasons for the male and femal life expectancy gap?
Physical and mental distress caused by lost jobs and social disruption.
High divorce rates
Alcohol led to high suicide rate
What is cited in the textbook as a major reason for falling birth rates during the 1990s in Russia?
Insufficient incomes.