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136 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of the spacial and temporal distribution of phenomena, processes and features, as well as the study of human enviormental interactions
What are the origins of geography?
geographic description,
enviormental description,
enviormental determinism,
landscape interpretation,
quantitative revolution,
rise of human geography
What are academic disciplines?
ways of looking at the world,
priorities about what is important,
interpreted from other concepts and definitions,
standards for what makes research persuasive,
evolving social systems
Name geography's trinity
Techniques, physical geography, human geography
Name examples of techniques
GIS, Cartography, and Remote Sensing
Name examples of Physical Geography
Enviormental Geography,
Landscape Ecology
Name examples of Human Geography
Economic Geography,
Urban Geography,
Cultrual Geography,
Political Geography,
Regional Geography,
Name the major modes of Academic Geography
Enviormental Determinism,
Carl Sauer,
Quantitative Revolution,
and Post Positivism
Enviormental Determinism
a doctrine that holds that human activities are determined by the physical attributes of geographic settings
When was Enviormental Determinism popular?
late 1800's and 1920's
Name an example of Enviormental Determinism
civilization and economic development made possible in Europe by a mild climate
What was Carl Sauer's contribution to geography?
Landscape School at Berkeley School
What did the Landscaping School provide to Berkeley?
Landscapes as a focus of geographic study,
and human enviorment interactions in creation of distinctive landscapes and reigons
When was Carl Sauer's contribution popular?
1920's to the 1940's
Quantitative Revolution
-rise of positivism using scientific method to build universal theories and laws
-statements must derive from verifiable observations
-methods apply to both human and natural sciences
When was Quantitative Revolution popular?
1950's to the 1980's
Post Positivism
-human sciences distinct from natural sciences,
-broadening of theory and methods,
-post modern turn
How did Post Positivism take a postmodern turn?
through culture, representation, and discourse
When was Post Positivism popular?
1980's to present
Human Geography
it provides ways of understanding places, regions and spatial relationships as the products of a series of interrelated forces that stem from nature, culture and individual human action
specific geographic settings with distinctive physical, social, and cultural attributes.
Why does place matter?
-it provides the setting for peoples daily lives and their social relations,
-they are interdependent and is ever changing,
-and are socially produced
the increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of ecomonic, enviormental, political and cultural change
a partitioning of space wherein different political, economic and social problems play out
Name fundamental concepts of spatial analysis
spacial interaction
How is space measured?
in absolute, relative, and cognitive terms
Cognitive space
reflects peoples beliefs, perceptions about places, districts ,and regions
Absolute Space
mathematical space; involves precise measurement of location (x,y,z)
Topological Space
relative space, connectivity between locations
Absolute Location
Name a type of map with absolute location
mercator chart
Relative Location
determined by using site and situation
Cognitive Location
refers to the personal cognitive images of places and reigons compiled from personal knowledge, experiences, and impressions
What measures location?
Cultural Systems embedded in different cultures and worldviews
Absolute Distance
physical units of measure
Relative Distance
time, effort or cost
Cognative Distance
Distance Decay Function
amount of spatial interaction tends to decline with distance
Friction of Distance
time and cost of overcoming distance
Nearness Principle
maximize the overall utility of places at min effort, maximize connections between places at min cost, locate related activities as close together as possible
opportunity for contact or interaction between locations
What factors are in Accessibility?
economic, cultural, and social factors
Spacial Interaction
flow of goods, people, and information between places
How does spacial interaction allow countries to compliment one another?
precondition for interdependence,
supply and demand,
variation of physical resources,
international division of labor,
economies of scale
What factors make spacial interaction's transferability possible?
cost, distance, but varies over time
Intervening Opportunity
alternative origin or destination affects the volume and pattern of movements and flows
Spacial Diffusion
the way things spread across space over time
Name the forms of spatial diffusion
expansion diffusion,
hierarchial diffusion,
relocation diffusion
Planimetric Maps
give spatial information such as house locations and political boundaries
Topographic (Hypsometric Maps)
include information about landscape form
What kind of graphs do cartographers make?
general reference maps and thematic maps
Name the different types of general reference maps
road maps and topographic maps
Thematic Maps
geographic distribution of ideas people things conditions etc
Choropleth Map
enumeration or administrative spatial units
What are the principles governing modern western cartography?
projections, scale, symbols
Map Projections
a transformation of the spherical or ellipsoidal earth onto a flat map
the globe cutting the surface after it being scaled
parallel to the earth's rotation axis
90 degrees to the axsis
any other angle
a projection that preserves the shape of features across the map
equal area
a projection that preserves the area of a feature across the map
True or False? No flat map can be both equivalent and conformal
Map Scale
expresses the relationship between map distance and actual ground distance
How is map scale expressed?
in ratios known as representative fractions (RF), verbally, and visually
What does a large scale map show?
a small area of a large amount of detail
What does a small scale map show?
a large area with a small amount of detail
Magnetic Declination
the difference between true north (the axis around which the earth rotates) and magnetic north (the direction the needle of a compass will point)
What type of north changes over time?
magnetic north
What is magnetic north currently located?
northwest of the Hudson's bay northern canada
Geographic Information Systems
Name the definations of GIS
a toolbox, an information system, approach to science, multibillion dollar business, a role in society
What does a GIS consist of ?
a database, map informaiton, computer based link between them
What year did the GIS find many forms of geographic data and mapping software?
What developed the first basic GIS?
computer cartography
What proceeded GIS's?
linked software modules
What were the early data sets of GIS?
the world data bank and the GBF files
Name the early GIS systems
Why was the Harvard University ODYSEEY system influential?
because of its topological arc-node data structure
The Modern World System
interdependent system of countries linked by political and economic competition
Mini systems
societies with single cultural base
World Empires
a group of mini systems absorbed into common political systems
World Systems
an interdependent system of countries
What type of economy is mimi systems?
reciprocal social economy
What type of economy is world empires?
redistributive tributary social economy
What type of economy are world systems?
linked by political and economic competition
When were minisystems first stablized?
with the first agricultureal revolution 9000-7000 BC
What happened in the agricultural revolution of 9000-7000 BC?
seed cultivation, animal domestication, and emergence and spread of new practices
What happened to the mini systems after the agricultural revolution?
higher density settlements, social hierarchies, specialization in crafts, barter and trade, hydraulic societies
What geographical processes are world empire premised on?
culturalization and urbanization
What is colonization fueled by?
law of diminishing returns
Law of Diminishing Returns
tendency for productivity to decline with continued application of capital and labor
What country emerged as the dominant world empire?
political and legal domination by a state over a separate and alien society
direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories
Core Reigons
dominant in trade and technology, and maintain high productivity and diversified economies
Periphery Regions
economically and politically weak, narrowly specialized economies, low productivity
Semi Periphery Reigons
able to exploit peripheral reigons, themselves exploited by core reigons
Name some examples of periphery reigons
former Dutch, Spanish, Brittish, German, French colonies, much of Aftica, Cantral and South America
Name some examples of semi periphery reigons
Brazil, India, Mexico, South Korea, Taiwan
How was Portuguese penitrating by the periphery?
How was Dutch penetrating the periphery?
How were the British penetrating the periphery?
Mericantilism and Industrialization
How were Americans penetrating the periphery?
points to foreign trade as source of country's enrichment, exploration for raw materials, value added in manufacturing
a form of economic and social organization characterized by the profit motive and control of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of goods by private ownership
What did the intensification of the core result in?
Indternational Division of Labor, Specialization of people, reigons and economies in certain kinds of econ activities
What was intensification of the core imposed by?
economic and military strength
technological systems
innovations in power and energy transportation and manufacturing processes resulted in some crucial changes in patterns of economic development
innovations of 1790 - 1840
water power and steam engines, cotton textiles, development of river transport systems, canals and turnpike roads
innovations of 1840 - 1890
coal power steam engines, steel products, railroads, world shipping
innovations of 1890 - 1950
internal combustion engine, oil plastics, aircraft, radio, and telecommunications
innovations in 1950
nuclear power, aerospace, electronics, petrochemicals, highways, and global air routes
innovations in 1990
solar energy, robotics, biotechnology, information technology
Name the causes and concequences of globalization
a new international division of labor and internationalixation of finance a new technology system, and a homogenization of international consumer markets 2) the internationalization of finance, the emergence of global banking and globally integrated financial markets 3) new technology based on a combination of innovations including solar energy, robotics, microelectronics, biotechnology, digital communications 4) the growth of consumer markets
fast world
people and places directly involved as producers and consumers in a transnational industry
slow world
(85%) of the population people and places whose participation in the above mentioned industry is limited
the study of the characteristics of human populations
What does spatial perspective emphasize?
the description and explanation of the where of population distribution patterns and processes
What factors influence distribution?
water soil climate trade religion technology political war
population density
population density / land area
crude birth rate (CBR)
# of live births / year for every 1000 people
crude death rate (CDR)
# of deaths / year for every 1000 people
Natural increase
surplus of births over deaths (CBR -CDR)
Natural decrease
surplus of deaths over births (CDR - CBR)
total fertility rate
average # of children women have during childbearing years of 15 -49
infant mortality rate
# deaths during one year of life / 1000 births
life expectancy
average # years a newborn can be expected to live
a long distance move to a new location, geographical movement of population, some degree of permanence, crossing a political boundry
mobility moving to a particular location
moving from one local to another
gross migration
total # of people moving one place to another
net migration
gain or loss in population due to moving in or out
Name pull factors of migrating
amenities, employment, saftey, religious freedom
Name some push factors of migration
war crime enviormental degradation job loss political change
name the waves of migration
voluntary internal migration (settlers) and involuntary internal migration (natives), and voluntary interal migration to urban jobs, 2nd WAVE: voluntary rural south to urban north, 3RD WAVE: voluntary from forest belt to sunbelt and voluntary suburbanization