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33 Cards in this Set

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Fairly weak backwash
Strong backwash
They erode and transport material away from beaches
Destructive Waves
Strong Swash
Weak backwash
Because swash is stronger than the backwash they tend to deposit material and build up beaches.
Constructive Waves
The waves breaking and traveling up the beach carrying load. Waves will break and the swash will travel in the direction of the wind.
The waves returning to the sea with load. Waves will take the shortest possible route back to the sea (gravity).
What components make up a Destructive Wave?
Destructive waves are created in storm conditions
They are created from big, strong waves when the wind is powerful and has been blowing for a long time.
They occur when wave energy is high and the wave has travelled over a long fetch.
They tend to erode the coast.
They have a stronger backwash than swash.
They have a short length and are high and steep.
What components make up a Constructive Wave?
They are created in calm weather and are less powerful than destructive waves.
They break on he shore and deposit material, building up beaches.
They have a long wavelength, and are low in height.
They have less of a backwash than destructive waves.
This is when sea water and air get trapped in cracks. The increasing pressure of the water and air cause the rocks to crack.
Hydraulic Pressure
Rocks been thrown into the cliffs by waves and breaking off bits of the cliff.
Corrasion (Abrasion)
The slight acidity of sea water causing bits of the cliff to dissolve.
Corrosion (Solution)
Rocks, sand and stones being thrown into each other by the sea current and waves.
This is the process of waves moving (transporting) material (load) along a coastline.
Longshore Drift
Conditions needed for Coral reefs
Tropical sea conditions (between the two tropics)
Warm waters (must be over 18 degrees centigrade year round)
Clear water ( no sediment)
No pollution
Water less than 60 metres deep
No strong currents
Fringing Reef
Fringing reefs circle or fringe the coastline or islands. They are often protected by barrier reefs further out to sea, so the plants and animals that live in fringing reefs are suited to low wave energy environments.
Barrier Reef
These occur further from the sea and are commonly separated from the mainland or island by a deep lagoon. Barrier reefs are normally older and wider than fringing reefs. The Great Barrier reef in Eastern Australia is a barrier reef and stretches for 1600km.
a ring-shaped reef, island, or chain of islands formed of coral. It is formed after the island sinks
a steep rock face, esp. at the edge of the sea. They are formed by a combination of erosion and weathering, weathering working on the upper parts of the cliff and erosion wearing away the base of the cliff.
At high tide the power of the sea attacks and erodes the bottom of the cliff. Over time this erosion creates a wave cut notch (basically an eroded hole at the bottom of the cliff). As the wave cut notch gets bigger, the weight of rock above the notch gets greater. Eventually the cliff can not support its own weight and it collapses.
Wave cut platform
The waves always look for weaknesses in the headland (cracks and joints). If they find a crack or a joint they will start attacking it. Hydraulic pressure will be the main type of erosion. Overtime the crack may turn into a cave.
The waves always look for weaknesses in the headland (cracks and joints). If they find a crack or a joint they will start attacking it. Hydraulic pressure will be the main type of erosion. Overtime the crack may turn into a cave. Slowly the cave will get bigger and cut all the way through the headland, making an arch.
As the arch gets bigger the weight of the arch roof gets too great and it collapses, leaving a stack.
The stack is then eroded by the sea and weathered from the air leaving a stump.
An indented area of land normally found between two headlands. They are usually more sheltered so there is less erosive power, meaning you often find beaches in bays.
A piece of land that sticks out into the sea. Waves refract around them so they experience a lot of erosion forming features like arches and stacks.
This is the accumulation of sand between the lowest spring tides and the highest spring tides. They can be made out of sand, shingle and/or pebbles. They receive their material from longshore drift, constructive waves, cliff erosion and river discharge.
Depositional Landforms
It is a long thin stretch of sand connected to the mainland but stretching out into the sea. They are formed in areas of calmer water where the sea has less energy. Found at the mouth of a river.
A spit that connects two headlands or runs across the face of a small cove
They are very dynamic, which means they are constantly changing. They are found behind berms and are basically an extension of the beach. They are formed by dry sand being blown up the beach.
Sand Dunes
A low energy, intertidal ecosystem that develops behind a spit. It will have some salt resistant vegetation.
Salt marsh
a small, isolated platform of coral.
Patch Reef
Offshore is the area below the normal low tide.
The foreshore is the area in between normal high and low tide
The backshore is the area above the normal high tide level.