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89 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What does water support?
supports plants and animals
What % water on the planet is salt?
97%
What % of the water on the earth is in the oceans?
70%
What % is in each hemisphere?
60% northern hemisphere; 81% southern hemisphere
How many parts = how many oceans?
4 main parts = 1 ocean
What are the names of the oceans and which is the largest?
Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic; Pacific largest
What does the ocean motion do that relates to temperature?
circulatesthrough 3 basic motions that help distribute heat on the planet
What does a current do?
acts like rivers flowing through the ocean
What is a wave?
swells or ridges produced by winds
What is a tide?
regular rising and falling of ocean created by gravitational pull of moon or sun
What are the 3 ocean motions?
currents, waves, tides
What is desalination?
removal of salt from seawater to make it usable for drinking and farming
Why is desalination so expensive?
takes 2 gallons of fresh water for every 1 gallon of desalinated, difficult to move and filter water for desalination, difficulty of disposal of resulting brine
Where is the majority of desalinated water produced in the world?
North Africa and SW Asia;
Where is the majority of desalinated water produced in the US?
Florida, TX, CA
What % of water on planet is fresh?
3%
What 3 difficult to tap locations is freshwater found and at what fractions?
2/3 frozen icecaps and glaciers, 1/6 below surface of the ground
What % of freshwater is found in lakes?
1/3 of 1%
How were saltwater lakes formed?
when ancient outlets to sea were cut off
What are 2 examples of saltwater lakes?
Great Salt Lake & Caspian Sea
How were freshwater lakes formed?
result of glacial action
What is an example of freshwater lakes?
the Great Lakes
What is the largest freshwater lake?
Lake Baikal in Russia
What is the closest freshwater lake to Darlington?
Lake Marion
What is ground water and where does it come from?
water held in pores of rock below the soil
What is the water table?
level at which the rock is saturated

How are wells involved with the water table and groundwater?

draw groundwater from the water table
What are seasons related to?
related to the earth's tilt and revolution
How is the earth tilted?
23.5° angle relative to the sun
What causes seasons?
direct rays of sun hitting locations at different times of year
How is the earth tilted during summer?
earth tilted toward sun
How is the earth tilted during winter?
earth tilted away from sun
What season is each hemisphere experiencing simultaneously?
northern hemisphere summer = southern hemisphere winter
southern hemisphere winter = northern hemisphere summer
What does this mean about Christmas in Australia?
Christmas in Australia occurs during summer b/c southern hemisphere
What is the solstice?
sun's rays are directly overhead at noon at furthest latitudes
What date does the summer solstice occur and what is occurring then?
June 21st, longest day of the year, beginning of summer, when sun is directly over Tropic of Cancer
What date does the winter solstice occur and what is occurring then?
Dec. 22nd, shortest day of year, beginning of winter, when sun directly over Tropic of Capricorn
What is the equinox?
when day and night are equal length and northern and southern hemispheres receive equal amounts of light
What date is the spring equinox and what is occurring then?
March 21st beginning of spring when day and night are equal length
What date is the fall equinox and what is occurring then?
Sept. 23rd beginning of fall when day and night are equal length
What Is happening to the amount of daylight from the spring equinox and then the fall eqinox?
sunlight increases from spring equinox and decreases from fall equinox
What is weather?
atmospheric conditions at particular location and time
What is climate?
weather conditions at 1 location over long period
What conditions cause weather?
water vapor, cloud cover, landforms & bodies of water, elevation, air movement
What are tornadoes?
powerful, funnel-shaped column of spiraling air
What causes tornadoes?
swirl counterclockwise around low pressure, born from strong thunderstorms
How are tornadoes rated?
F0-F5
What % of tornadoes fall where on this scale?
80% F0-F1
How many tornadoes does the US average?
700 per year
What is Tornado Alley and what causes it?
flat area between Texas and Nebraska; cold, dry air down from Canada, warm moist air up from Gulf of Mexico
What are hurricanes?
storms that form over tropical ocean waters
What and where are typhoons and cyclones?
typhoons in Asia, cyclones in Southern Hemisphere/Indian Ocean
Where do hurricanes form?
form over tropical ocean waters
What are the categories of hurricanes?
Tropical Storm - to 74 mph
Categories 1-5
What have been the costliest US hurricanes?
Katrina, Harvey, Maria, Sandy
What is a blizzard?
heavy snowstorm with strong winds, reduced visibility
What is a flood?
water spreads over normally dry land
What is a drought?
long period of time with either no or minimal rainfall
What are monsoons?
prevailing winds that bring seasonalweather patterns to East Asia
What is the summer monsoon and what does it bring from where?
Summermonsoon (April-Oct.) brings heat and humidity up from Pacific Ocean providing80% of regional rain
What is the winter monsoon and what does it bring from where?
Wintermonsoon (Nov.-March) brings dry air from north carrying clouds of dust fromGobi and heavy snow to Japan and Korean Peninsula

What does the ocean do for the planet?

helps distribute heat on theplanet

Whatare the 3 basic motions of the ocean?

currents, waves, and tides

Whatdo currents do on the planet?

act like rivers flowing through theocean

Howdo currents flow?

flow in circular paths

What direction do currents flow in the N hemisphere?

clockwisein N hemisphere

What direction do currents flow in the S hemisphere?

counterclockwisein S hemisphere

What purpose do warm currents serve?

circulates warm water from Equator to poles

What purpose do cold currents serve?

circulates cold water from the poles toEquator

What are waves?

swellsor ridges produced by winds

What are tides and how are they produced?

the regular rising and falling of the ocean created by gravitational pull of the moon or sun

What do rivers and streams do?

flow through channels and move water toor from larger bodies of water

What do rivers and streams connect?

connect drainage basins with tributaries feeding into larger and larger branches

What is the source of surface water?

precipitation

What are headwaters?

are 1st smallest runoff streams

What is a tributary?

any smaller stream or river that flows into larger one

What examples are given of tributaries?

inUS, Arkansas, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers

What is a watershed?

thewhole region drained by a river and its tributaries

What are wetlands?

anylandscape that is covered with water for at least part of the year

What 5 landscapes are examples of wetlands?

bogs,coastal marshes, river bottomlands, and wooded swamps

What location in the US is given as an example of wetlands?

Evergladesin FL

What has been happening to wetlands in the US?

more than 50% of the US wetlands havebeen destroyed by draining, paving, orfilling

What does wind help to do on the planet?

helpsdistribute heat on the planet

What is wind?

airmoving across the surface of the Earth

What causes wind to occur?

sunlightheating the Earth’s atmosphere and surface unevenly

What are prevailing winds?

windin a region that blows in a fairly constant directional pattern

What are global wind patterns?

when warmtropical air moves toward the poles and cool polar air moves toward the Equator

How does warm, tropical air move globally?

toward the poles

How does cool, polar air move globally?

toward the Equator