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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is population density? And how is it Calculated?

How crowded an area is. You calculate it by dividing the total population of a place by the area

What does sparsely populated mean?

Means few people in an area

What are some of the factors that affect population distribution?

Land, climate, vegetation, soils, resources, access and economy

What is the population explosion?

Rapid growth in population with low death rate

Why do people have large families?

Labour, old age, infant mortality, religion and contraception

What is the first stage of the demographic transition model?

Birth rate - high

●death rate - high

●population growth - zero

●population size - low and steady

●example: tribes in brazil

What is stage 2 of the demographic transition model?

●Birth rate - high

●death rate - falling

●population growth - high

●population size - increasing

●Example: gambia

What is stage 3 of the demographic transition model?

●birth rate - falling

●death rate - falling

●population growth - high

●population size - increasing

●Example: egypt

What is stage 4 of the demographic transition model?

●birth rate - low

●death rate - low

●population growth - zero

●population size - high

●Example: UK and usa

What is stage 5 of the demographic transition model?

●birth rate- falling

●death rate- low

●population growth - negative

●population size - falling

●Example: japan

How do you calculate the dependency ratio?

No. Aged 0-15 + no. Aged 65+ ÷ no people aged 16-64

What are the problems in a youth full over populated LEDC?

Children miss out on education, services can't cope so not every one has access and food shortages

What are the social impacts of an ageing population?

Health care services are stretched, people need to spend more time working, fewer children = less affordable, more old people mean a lower pension

What are the economic impacts of an ageing population?

Taxes increase due to more pensions and less money in the country's economy

What is urbanisation?

The growth in the proportion of a country's population living in urban areas

What are the push factors associated with urbanisation?

Few jobs, lack of services and poor harvests

What are the pull factors associated with urbanisation?

More jobs and better services

What are the impacts of urbanisation?

Overcrowding, increase traffic, pollution and waste and in LEDCs it's leads to squatter settlements

What are the impacts of urbanisation in rural areas?

Bigger elderly population and even fewer services

What is counter urbanisation?

Moving out of cities into rural areas

What are the push factors associated with counter urbanisation?

Pollution and high traffic congestion, higher crime rates and houses cost more

What are the pull factors associated with counter urbanisation?

Better transport links, growth of work from home, new out of town business parks

Where is the central business district usually located?

Found in the middle of a city due to shops and offices

Where is the inner city located?

It's found around the CBD and has poorer quality housing and older industrial buildings

Where are the suburbs located?

Housing areas found towards the edge of the city

Where is the rural urban fringe located?

At the edge of the city where there are both urban land uses and rural land uses. Also higher classed and priced housing

What does sustainable mean?

Doing things in a way that let's the people living now have what they need without affecting the needs of future generations

What are carbon neutral homes?

Buildings that generate as much energy as they use

What is the threshold population?

Minimum population needed to support a shop

What is immigration?

When people move into an area

What is emigration?

When people move out of an area

What is international migration?

When people move to a different country

What are the ways of managing international migration?

Points- based systems which is where they choose who to let in based on age, education, work experience and language

●limits and targets so they don't let too many or too less in

●controlling illegal immigration

What is the difference between the continental crust and oceanic crust?

Continental is thick and less dense. Oceanic is thinner but more dense

Why do plates move?

The rock in the mantle underneath them moves

What is destructive margins?

When two plates move towards each other

What is constructive margins?

When two plates move away from eachother

What is conservative margins?

Where two plates move sideways past eachother in the same direction or different speeds

What margins are volcanoes found at?

Destructive and constructive

How do you reduce the impacts of Earthquakes?

Prediction, building techniques and planning

What is primary industry?

Collecting raw materials e.g farming

What is the secondary industry?

Manufacturing e.g furniture

What is tertiary industry?

Providing a service e.g police

What is quaternary industry?

New technology e.g electronics

What is globalisation?

The process of countries becoming more intergrated

What can cause drought?

Changes in atmospheric circulation

What are the human impacts of drought?

Overgrazing reduces vegetation so soil erosion is worse and excessive irrigation when water is artificially supplied from rivers to farmland

Why do people stay by volcanoes?

Soil around volcanoes is fertile because it's full of minerals from ash, tourist attractions and good source of geothermal energy

Why does a tropical storm develop?

Over warm water when it is 27°c or higher. The warm moist air rises and condensation occurs which releases big amounts of energy to make storms powerful. They move west due to easterly winds near the equator. Overland the energy supply is cut off

What are characteristics of tropical storms?

Spin anticlockwise and move northwest, least between 7 and 14 days, eye is caused by descending air, nothing in the eye but in the wall strong winds and rain