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170 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a physical map according to your notes?
Shows the location and topography of the earth's physical features
What types of features are found on a physical map according to the definition in the notes?
mountains, deserts, and bodies of water
What is the very simple definition of what can be found on a physical map?
things you can touch
What is a political map according to your notes?
Shows the boundaries between countries and smaller internal divisions such as states or counties
What types of features are found on a political map according to your notes?
Features borders of states, counties, capitals, andcities
What is a very simple definition of what can be found on a political map?
things that are there because the government says they are
What is a thematic map according to your notes?
emphasizes a particular theme or subject and can show various natural and human–made features
What is a compass rose?
Marker that indicates directions
What are the directions N, S, W, E known as?
Cardinal directions
What are the directions NW, SW, NE, SE known as?
Intermediate directions
What helps one remember how to draw a compass rose correctly?
Weeee and not Ewwww
Which way should North point and why?
Away from you, toward the top of your desk; in order to orient your map correctly
What is a key and how is each key different?
a list that explains what the symbols on a map stand for; specific to each map
What is a scale bar?
Shows the relationship between map measurements and actual distance
What is the purpose of a scale bar?
Shows how far it is from one place to another
How do map scales vary?
vary with the size of the area shown
What system of measurement does the US use?
Imperial System
How many countries in the world use the Imperial System and who are they?
three countries; Liberia, Myanmar, & the US
When did Britain switch to the Metric System?
1965
How did the US switch to the Metric System and why isn't it more widely used?
US Congress enacted law to switch in 1975; Congress made the switch voluntary
How much has not using the Metric System cost the US and what is the example?
$125 million; NASA's loss of the Mars Climate Orbiter
What caused the need for time zones?
introduction of railroads
How many times zones are there and why?
24 time zones each 1,000 miles across at the equator;due to 24 hours in a day and 1 revolution of the earth in 1 day
How many time zones does the US have and what are they?
the US has 4 times zones; Eastern (farthest east),Central, Mountain, Pacific (farthest west)
What are small–scale maps?
show a large area but little detail
What are large–scale maps?
show a small area with a great amount of detail
What 2 ways is location described in geography?
Relative and Absolute
What is the definition of relative location?
describes how a place is related to its surrounding environment
What does one have to know to find relative location?
can only be found if one is familiar with the specific characteristics of a place
What is the definition of absolute location?
the exact place on earth where a geographic feature is found
How is absolute location described?
described using a grid of lines on the earth's surface; latitude and longitude
What do all maps contain and why?
Certain tools that are the same that help to interpret the information on that specific map
Why is it important to know the tools of maps and how to use them effectively?
Knowing what these tools are and how to use them will help you use all maps more effectively
What is the definition of hemisphere?
division of the earth into 2 equal halves
What is the definition of equator?
divides the N&S halves of the earth
What is the definition of prime meridian?
divides the E&W halves of the earth
What are latitude lines and what do they measure?
Set of imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator; measure distances north or south of the equator
What rhyme reminds you how latitude lines run?
Lat rhymes with flat – Latitude lines run horizontally or flat
What are longitude lines and what do they measure?
Set of imaginary lines that run around the earth over the poles; measure distances east or west starting at the Prime Meridian
What line does one start at to measure latitude?
the Equator
What line does one start at to measure longitude?
the Prime Meridian
What is the main cause of air pollution in China?
use of coal power plants
What demonstrates that pollution conditions are some of the worst in the world in China?
9 of 10 of the world’s worst polluted cities
What is causing desertification and what is desertification?
Being caused by deforestation and is when arable land turns to desert
What is causing water pollution?
Dead animal dumping and untreated sewage
What actions are making water pollution in China worse?
Dumping of dead animals
Why are the oceans also becoming polluted? (what flows into them?)
Polluted rivers flowing into them
What type of ships are causing overfishing around Asia?
Factory ships
If overfishing continues like it has, what will happen to the oceans and fisheries and by what year?
world fisheries could collapse by 2050
What are the countries of East Asia listed in the notes?
China, Mongolia, Japan, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea
What is the formal name of China?
People’s Republic of China
What is the relative land area and population of China?
80% of land of East Asia, largest population of world 1.3 billion
What 2 countries are bigger than China?
Russia and Canada
What is the land area and comparative population of Mongolia?
13% of East Asia's land, less than 1% of China's population
How is the population of Mongolia described?
world's most sparsely populated
What is the population of China and its % of the world?
1.357 billion, 25% of world
Comparatively, how many people in the world are Chinese?
1 in 5 people
What does “Chinese” mean?
person of the Middle Kingdom
What happened in Tiananmen Square and when?
June 1989 students demonstrated for Fifth Modernization
What is the Fifth Modernization?
democratic reforms and political freedom
What were the 4 Modernizations?
Agriculture, industry, defense, science and technology
Who was Tank Man? What did he do and why?
anonymous Chinese man; stood up to column of tanks rolling into Tiananmen Square
Why did Tank Man become a symbol of the 20th century?
he showed that the individual was more powerful than the group
How did the Chinese government react to the student demonstrators in Tiananmen Square?
gov’t declared them to be dissidents (political enemies) and opened fire on them killing 2,000 and wounding hundreds
What has been the Chinese government’s attitude/actions towards the events in Tiananmen Square?
to deny it occurred and continue to repress thefreedom of people
What does the government of China continue to do regarding citizen freedoms to this day?
repression of freedoms has continued through to present
What was China’s one–child policy?
policy to slow growth of population with couples allowed 1 child
When did China’s one–child policy begin?
1979
What has happened recently to the one–child policy? Is this going to result in Chinese children having siblings? Why not?
has been relaxed and population is starting to grow again; no, tradition is now calling for one–child households
What will the current generation of Chinese males and females experience due to the one–child policy?
Males experience difficulty finding someone to marry; females may experience kidnapping due to scarcity
How has the one–child policy caused a shift in the geography of the Chinese workforce?
mostly migrant male workers have come eastsending money home to the west
How does discrimination occur geographically in China?
people born in the country are not allowed to go to school in the cities
Where do the majority of Chinese people live geographically?
70% live on 45% of the land in 12 Eastern Provinces
How large are Chinese cities?
30–40 Chinese cities have populations of more than 1 million
What traditional practices does Chinese healthcare use?
acupuncture and cupping
When, under whom, and in what kind of government was the People’s Republic of China created?
1949 under Mao Zedong as a communist country
What happened to the economy under Mao and in recent history?
tried to plan economy, has become more relaxed and fastest growing since 1980s
What % of Chinese farm what and why?
60% of Chinese farm mostly rice due to lack of arable land
What % of Chinese land is arable?
13%
How much has the amount of arable land shrunk? During what period? Because of what 3 reasons?
shrunk 6% between 2009–2019 due to urbanization, industrialization, and desertification
What is crowding in China’s cities causing?
air and water pollution
Why do workers not settle down in the cities?
their families are back in the west
What has resulted from the large, drifting workforce?
Crime and a corrupt police force
What was Tibet and what happened to it?
independent country was led by Buddhist religious leader taken over by China
Who was the specific leader of Tibet when China took over?
Dalai Lama
When did China take over Tibet?
1950
How has China violated Tibetan human rights?
restricted practice of Buddhism and encouraged Chinese migration making Tibetans minorities in their own country
What has happened with the Dalai Lama, Tibet, China, and India? What may the consequences be?
in exile in India; will not reincarnate if not allowed to return to Tibet due to Chinese rule
What has China encouraged in Tibet to affect the population and Tibetans?
encouraged Chinese migration making Tibetansminorities in their own country
Why do Ohio and Michigan hate each other?
disagreement over Toledo Strip (water)
Why does Michigan have an Upper Peninsula?
gave up Toledo in exchange
What did Ohio get when Michigan got the Upper Peninsula?
Toledo
Why does Pennsylvania have a notch?
in order to get a port on Lake Erie
What state was Las Vegas almost a part of?
Arizona
What cuts Derby Line, Vermont in ½?
the US/Canadian Border
What does the US border with Canada mostly follow out west?
the 49th Parallel
What was wrong with the location of Fort Blunder?
it was built in Canada
What was done to correct the mistake of Fort Blunder?
the US border was moved 3/4 of a mile
What is a surveyor’s chain used to measure?
distances
The entire country was measured how many feet at a time?
33
During the Revolutionary War, what was still part of New York?
Vermont
What are ghost states?
states that once existed but disappeared
What state did Tennessee break off from?
North Carolina
What 3 empires all had claims in the U.S?
Spain, France, and England
How did the Louisiana Purchase change the size of the US?
doubled the size of the US
In what year did the Louisiana Purchase occur?
1803
How much did the Louisiana Purchase cost?
$15 million
Why did Napoleon give up the Louisiana Purchase for so little?
Haiti no longer belonged to France or needed supplies from North America
What river divides Missouri & Illinois?
the Mississippi River
What happened to the original capital of Illinois?
flooding caused the state line to move and place the capital in Missouri
How many states line the Mississippi River?
10 states
What is the name of the most notorious border in America?
the Mason–Dixon Line
What does the “most notorious border in America” actually mark?
the border between PA and MD and the border between MD and DE
What was the Missouri Compromise the real division between?
slave and non–slave states
How many years did the American Civil War last and approximately how many soldiers were killed?
4 years; 650,000 soldiers
What question pushed Congress over the edge into war?
who gets the West?
How many states could Texas have been broken into?
5 states
How far north did Texas once reach?
all the way to Wyoming
What year did Texans launch a revolution?
1835
Why wasn’t California broken into smaller states?
gold
What is the state of Jefferson called today?
Colorado
What did railroads shape?
states
What state had an official “No Man’s Land”?
Colorado
Where was Colorado gold first found?
Silverton
What are the names of the four states that come together in one place?
Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado
What 2 states stick out among the boxy ones?
Idaho and Montana
In 1863, the states were split between what?
the Continental Divide
States have to present their proposed boundary lines to what body in Washington?
Congress
What is the name of the oldest state capitol in the United States?
Santa Fe
Who founded the state of Utah?
the Mormons
How many million immigrants did New York Harbor see?
12 million
Who rules Ellis Island?
New Jersey and New York share
When did European colonization begin in Africa?
1800s
What did Europeans trade with Africans?
gold, ivory, textiles, and slaves
Why did slavery in Africa increase?
Europeans shipped Africans to the Americas to grow cash crops
What are cash crops?
crops grown to be sold
What was the effect of the slave trade in Africa?
caused a major setback in Africa as all working age adults gone
What did Europeans see the African continent as?
a source of raw material
What portion of the African continent was not claimed by Europeans?
Ethiopia, Liberia, and South Africa
How did Europeans divide the African continent?
divided the land as it suited them without regard for tribes or alliances
What affect did Europeans have on African religion and culture?
replaced with European religion and culture that they felt was superior
When did African countries begin to gain independence from Europe?
early 1900s
How did European borders affect Africa?
were maintained when new countries were created and civil wars erupted
What was apartheid and what did it resemble in the US?
separation or segregation of races; resembling Jim Crow
Who was Nelson Mandela?
anti–apartheid leader of South Africa who was imprisoned for 27 years and became the 1st black president of South Africa
What was the result of universal suffrage in South Africa?
the election of Nelson Mandela as 1st black president of South Africa
How many languages are spoken in Africa?
800 different
What is lingua franca?
the common language
What is the lingua franca of Africa?
French or English
What are the two largest religions in Africa and their percentages?
Christian – 41% and Muslim – 34%
What 2 countries have suffered religious conflicts recently?
Nigeria and Sudan
What result of a religious conflict did we study in class?
civil war in Sudan
What year did the civil war in Sudan begin?
1988
What were the refugees in Sudan known as?
The Lost Boys of Sudan
What did the US agree to do with the refugees from Sudan and why?
agreed to resettle them because they have little chance of finding any family members alive
Why do the Sudanese refugees create a Peace Walk?
to increase awareness about the war in Sudan
What is the name of their Sudanese culture?
Dinka
Why can’t the refugees return to Sudan?
because the US considers Sudan dangerous and they would not be allowed to return to the US
What is the lack of education a barrier to in Africa?
economic development
What group in Africa receives the least schooling and how much do they receive on average?
females only receive 1.2 years
What % of Africans of what age can read and write?
only 60% of people over 15
What has destroyed school systems and where?
civil wars in Angola and Somalia
How is the economy today in Africa compared to the past?
most African countries are worse off today than in 1960
What crucial system does most of Africa lack today?
infrastructure
How is the land in Africa cleared?
using the slash and burn method without regard to the land
What practice for farming has Zambia started and what is its purpose?
conservation farming to protect the land through better planning and use
What country once produced the world’s best diamonds and what are their conditions now?
Sierra Leone; now has worst conditions in West Africa
What percent of child and adult AIDS cases are in Africa?
70% of adults and 80% of child
What fraction of Africans have clean drinking water?
1/3 of Africans
What fraction of Africans have adequate sanitation?
1/4 of Africans