Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


1a) farm

1b) mamlet

2) village

3) town

4) city


Linear, nucleated, dispersed


- forestry (patch of woodland)

- roads (green/first class & motorway/blue)

- railways

- Agriculture/farming

- settlements & villages

- tourism


1:1/2➡ 10cm:5Km (measure in centimetres and divide by 2)

Orbital geometry

Variable orbit, 'wobbles' on its axis a little, angle of tilt of the axies also varies - can effect the amount of energy recieved. Milankovitch mechanism (main reason for the series of ice ages in past)

Solar output

Sun is not constant in it's output, small amounts = large impacts on global temperatures

Catastrophic events

Volcanic activity and collisions between the Earth and large extraterrestrial objects such as meteors or even comets result in large quantities of material being ejected into the atmosphere.

Most important greenhouse gasses

Water vapour, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, CFCs

Impact on food production

Natural enviroment affected ➡ global pattern of crop yield affected.

Will need quick response. This will mean reduction in food supply/higher prices.

Impact on sea level

1) expansion of sea level (from heat)

2) melting ice

Threatens life of small low-lying islands and coral reefs, impact on coastal regions. Flood plains contaminated by sea water. Dark water absorbs heat/ice reflects it. ALBEDO EFFECT

Individual action (response)

Living sustainably: in a manner that preserves our enviroment, to take personal responsibility for the future of our planet - reduce impact on the Earth's resources...

National campaigns (response)

National governments, conflicts: economic growth, social equity and protection of enviroment.

International action

Slow because many counrties find it difficult to balance a commitment to evonomic growtbh with cutting emissions.

Density of cities - transport

More dense - more organized and used public transport

Less dense - higher fuel consumption

Congestion charging

If drivers enter certain areas of the city (usually the center), must pay daily charge.

Resource extraction

1) deforestation

2) local conflicts

3) biodiversity lost

4) soil and aquatic pollution (spills and toxic products)

5) air pollution