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27 Cards in this Set

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Troposphere
-Extends 12-15 km
-Layer in the atmosphere in contact with the surface
-Temp decreases with height, heated from below
-contains all weather, clouds
-80% of mass of atmosphere
Pauses
Isothermal sections above spheres
Stratosphere
-extends to 50 km in height
-layer above troposphere
-temp increases with height because of absorption of ultraviolet light by ozone (inversion)
-stable air layer
Mesosphere
-extends 80km in height
-layer above stratosphere
-temp decreases with height because of lack of contact with ground, lack of ozone
Thermosphere
-layer above mesosphere
-temp increases with height because of energy from gamma and x-ray absorption due to the earth's magnetic field
-density of air is very thin, holds little heat
-drifts off to nothingness above 120km
Mixed Layer
-Warm, surface layer stirred by winds
-50-75 meters thick, relatively isothermal
Thermocline
Transitional layer where there is a decrease in water temperature with depth
Deep Water
Cold, deep isothermal layer. 4 degrees C
Halocline and Pychnocline
transitional layers, depth highly dependent on latitude
Specific Heat
amount of energy required to raise one gram of a substnace one degree C
Turbulent mixing
warm bubbles of air rise and are replaced by colder air from aloft
Isotherm
Line of constant air temperature
Rayleigh Scattering
-omnidirectional scattering by gas molecules smaller than the radiation wavelength.
-Blue light is scattered by an order of magnitude greater than red light
Mie Scattering
-Forward scattered by aerosols with similar sizes to the radiation wavelength
-all light is scattered equally- gray haze
Barometer
istrument that measures atmospheric pressure
Mercurial Barometer
Measures atmospheric pressure as an equivalent weight of a column of mercury
Aneroid Barometer
uses pressure exerted against at a partial vacuum to measure air pressure
Pressure Gradient
variation in atmospheric pressure from one place to another
Pressure Gradient Force
acts in a direction from higher to lower pressure
Isobars
Lines of constant pressure
Sea Breeze
Air is forced to flow onshore
LAnd Breeze
Aire is forced to flow offshore
Coriolis Force
apparent force caused by the rotation of the earth. Causes objects to be deflected to the right of their path of motion in the NH and left in the SH
Friction
a drag force that inhibits forward movement
Cyclone
Isolated low pressure system
Anticyclone
Isolated high pressure system
Gyres
Oceans flow in a circular motion