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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

How and why has climate changed since the last ice age?

General upward trend in temp
natural cycles and later on industrialisation

General upward trend in temp

natural cycles and later on industrialisation

Natural Causes of climate change

Solar output

Orbit Geometry and tilt

surface coverage and reflection

tectonic and volcanic activity

human causes

changes in atmospheric gas due to industrialisation

fossil fuels

deforestation and higher population

methane sources


rice paddies



burning vegetation

bowels of animals

How much have methane levels risen by per year? Why?

1.5%- increase in fossil fuel usage and mining, rising global temperature (causes higher gas output by bacteria in wetlands), increase in rice production due to increase in population, increase in cattle and sheep farming (same reason)

three negative effects of climate change

Crop yield patterns- countries close to the equator have reducing crop growing seasons and decreasing yield.

Rising sea levels- 3.3mm a year. cities such as london and new york are at risk. pacific islands flooding

Retreating glaciers- almost all are melting, 90% in antarctica

global scale responses to clmate change (international and NGO)

Rio de Janeiro earth summit- led to Kyoto protocol- countries agreed to cut emissions by 5.2% globally

NGOs such as Greenpeace focus on reduction of fossil fuel usage- they pressure governments to make policy changes

Local scale responses (schools, councils, local interest groups)

Livesimply- Catholic Church encouraging students to reduce their impact

School SUSTAIN committee- solar panels, push taps, recycling

Manchester is my Planet- pledge campaign to reduce individuals' footprints. Green badge parking- people with low carbon cars can apply for a discount on public car parks

Definition of sustainable development

development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs

UN Brundtland report focuses (three)

the conservation and enhancement of the environment by the development of tech

social equality through allowing countries to meet their needs sustainably

economic growth for all

UK's sustainability foci (four)

climate change and energy (reducing GHG emissions and preparing for the irreversable effects of climate change

Natural resources (the limits of natural resources that sustain life eg water, to increase efficiency)

sustainable communities (public places)

Sustainable consumption and production

Asda/Wal-Mart- reduction in recyclable waste

used to fill 4 skips with packaging (polythene and shrink wrap), now bale it to recycle

Nokia- phone recycling

44% of phones not recycled

nokia offers trade in service, could save 240,000 tonnes of raw materials

General Electric- reduction in water usage

pledge to reduce water consumption by 20% (7.4 million cubic metres of water- 3000 olympic pools)

power generation- coal power stations

how much power do they provide worldwide

38%, in china and india its 50%

how to decrease CO2 emissions

increase efficiency (from 36 to 40% causes a 25% drop in CO2)

scrubbers can remove 98% of emissions from waste gases

how to reduce SO2

most have systems to reduce SO2 emissions by 60%, but when scrubbers are fitted this rises to a 95% reduction in gases released- not so common in LICs

How to decrease nitrous oxides

most power stations have systems that remove ~70%

Transport management in urban areas- number of vehicles in Delhi

5 million (in 2008)

how to manage traffic? (two ways)

build more roads- decreases congestion but can increase pollution

Reduce traffic- wide range of schemes

Congestion charging- name three cities with the scheme

Oslo, Stockholm, london

How much has londons congestion charge reduced traffic

21%- 65,000 fewer car journeys a day

how much has bus travel increased in london after the congestion charge was introduced

29,000 during morning rush hour

how much has cycling increased since the congestion charge was introduced?


how much has the congestion charge decreased pollution levels in london

12% (nitrous oxides and particulates)

How much has Durham's congestion charge reduced traffic


How many towns and cities offer park and ride schemes in the UK


Where are the car parks located for the cambridge park and ride scheme

next to the m11, close to the a14. this gives good access

how many spaces are available

45000, they are secure and well equipped

how much does it cost

£2.20 a day

other sustainable transport schemes (name 6)

car sharing is encouraged (could reduce pollution by 10%)

Cycle and walking paths in urban areas (milton keynes has the most in the uk)

road lanes that only allow cars with multiple passengers

pedestrianised bits that allow buses and trams

road lanes with bus priority

restricted parking

how much forest is cut down a year by the Carajas iron ore mining project?


how much waste is created a day by the Freeport mining co. in Indonesia?

285,000 tonnes- dumped into local river

what are effects of oil extraction in rainforest areas (named example)

Ecuador- high levels of stomach cancer and miscarriages due to pollution of water and food supplies. plants used for medicine are now endangered

how are indigenous peoples affected by illegal logging

Baka pygmies employed to show loggers where the best trees are so they ruin their own environment unintentionally. no protective clothing is worn in the sawmills so workers breathe in toxic chemicals

How is ecotourism used as a management scheme in Costa Rica

zip wires and trails through the forest have been created- this encourages spending to preserve the rainforest as a tourist attraction.

Pharma company Merck is allowed to search the forest for medicinal plants

How have the ecuadorian peoples been compensated by oil companies?

Companes like Texaco have paid $40million to clean up waste left behind. some companies have laid underground pipelines to reduce impact and provided schools for local tribes. $60 million has been invested in environmental protection by the companies

How has bolivia raised money for its environmental protection?

The government sold carbon credits from the 1.5 million hectare Noel Kempff national park. this is a UNESCO heritage site since 2000. the money went to supporting communities so they do not deforest for farming or for logging companies

What has the malaysian government done to promote environmental protection?

Plans were rejected to build a coal power station on Borneo as it would've affected endangered species.

resources in the area such as gold aren't exploited