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10 Cards in this Set

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renewable vs non-renewable

renewable: replenish themselves (ex. fish stocks, soils, forest)




non-renewable: finite, do not renew themselves (ex. coal, natural gas, iron ore)

renewable and non-renewable


why inadequate terms?


provide Ehrlich and Daily's alternative

time




forever to renew is called non-renewable




alternative: rate of use vs. rate of natural renewal




or also essential (water) vs. substitutable (cooper)

instrumental values

serves our needs, wants, enjoyment


includes Nature's Goods, Nature's Services, Nature's Library (we depend on to find new "good"), and Nature's amenities (recreational, aesthetic enjoyment

intrinsic values

value beyond any human need or services




we have ethical responsibility to protect nature



club good vs. public good

economic model (excludability and rivalrous)




club: right to exclude




public: have full access to all in society




BOTH: non-rivalrous (enjoyment doesn't affect another)




when demand of a resource increases and causes harm, club good model good for controlling that harm





Harriet Hemingway

Progressive Era - movement to protect wildlife




specifically birds slaughtered for hats


reacting to the over exploitation of wildlife under Usufruct attitude




led to Lacey Act (ban on interstate commerce in wildlife)




created first local chapter of the Audubon society



Garrett Hardin, freedom to breed is bad, population growth leveling off, how?

Demographic Transition Model




stage 2 - improvement in health care and sanitation drastically reducing infant mortality


stage




stage 3 - transformation in social/economic institutions




net result of greater freedoms is a lowering of the birth rate

ethical doctrine of Utilitarianisms, how related to public policy and allocation of Natural Resources, example in U.S. history

maximizes good for society


"greatest good"


developed by Jeremy Benthem


ex. NEPA

NEPA and EISs, explain and give an example

cornerstone of the env. era legislation


fed gov. accepts responsibility for protecting the well-being of citizens by protecting env. quality


make EPA the administrative/enforcing agency


requires EISs - measure benefits/costs

Usufruct, good or bad for env.?

"use of fruit"


norm/expectation that all people have the right to profit from nature


driver of economic development/expansion


BUT costs to society and Nature


leads to tragedy of the commons