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10 Cards in this Set

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renewable vs non-renewable

renewable: replenish themselves (ex. fish stocks, soils, forest)

non-renewable: finite, do not renew themselves (ex. coal, natural gas, iron ore)

renewable and non-renewable

why inadequate terms?

provide Ehrlich and Daily's alternative


forever to renew is called non-renewable

alternative: rate of use vs. rate of natural renewal

or also essential (water) vs. substitutable (cooper)

instrumental values

serves our needs, wants, enjoyment

includes Nature's Goods, Nature's Services, Nature's Library (we depend on to find new "good"), and Nature's amenities (recreational, aesthetic enjoyment

intrinsic values

value beyond any human need or services

we have ethical responsibility to protect nature

club good vs. public good

economic model (excludability and rivalrous)

club: right to exclude

public: have full access to all in society

BOTH: non-rivalrous (enjoyment doesn't affect another)

when demand of a resource increases and causes harm, club good model good for controlling that harm

Harriet Hemingway

Progressive Era - movement to protect wildlife

specifically birds slaughtered for hats

reacting to the over exploitation of wildlife under Usufruct attitude

led to Lacey Act (ban on interstate commerce in wildlife)

created first local chapter of the Audubon society

Garrett Hardin, freedom to breed is bad, population growth leveling off, how?

Demographic Transition Model

stage 2 - improvement in health care and sanitation drastically reducing infant mortality


stage 3 - transformation in social/economic institutions

net result of greater freedoms is a lowering of the birth rate

ethical doctrine of Utilitarianisms, how related to public policy and allocation of Natural Resources, example in U.S. history

maximizes good for society

"greatest good"

developed by Jeremy Benthem

ex. NEPA

NEPA and EISs, explain and give an example

cornerstone of the env. era legislation

fed gov. accepts responsibility for protecting the well-being of citizens by protecting env. quality

make EPA the administrative/enforcing agency

requires EISs - measure benefits/costs

Usufruct, good or bad for env.?

"use of fruit"

norm/expectation that all people have the right to profit from nature

driver of economic development/expansion

BUT costs to society and Nature

leads to tragedy of the commons