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64 Cards in this Set

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Sediment, typically with graded bedding, that is deposited by a turbidity current
How do deep sea fans form?
Turbidites abound at the mouth of submarine canyons, where they form thick sequences of cone-shaped deposits known as deep-sea fans.
What carves out deep sea canyons, how?
Excavated by a combination of sediment slumping and turbidity currents that have deepened a gully, or depression, on the sea bottom.
Pelagic sediment containing >30% by volume shells of microorganisms
What organisms make up calcareous ooze?
Zooplankton and phytoplankton
What organisms make up siliceous ooze?
Diatoms and radiolaria
Inorganic deposit that consists of extremely fine-grained particles that typically have a brownish color
pelagic red clay
Why is it as hard to erode clays as it is to erode gravels?
Part of the explanation lies in the fact that mud - a mixture of clay and silt - is more cohesive and, hence, "stickier" than sand, and so a stronger current is needed to dislodge a mud particle from the bottom than a fine grain of sand.
Which sediment is the easiest to erode?
Sediments on the continental shelves
neritic sediment
Hydrogenous sediment made up of 2 parts manganese dioxide and 1 part iron oxide
manganese nodules
What is the Manganese Nodule Mystery?
How come the Mn nodules are mostly exposed and there are about the same density of nodules in every layer of sediment?
Small spheres deposited in high wave activity, as the rolling by waves makes them round as the calcium carbonate is deposited a little at a time
the region of a subduction zone located between the deep-sea trench and volcanic arc, where thick sedimentary units and volcanic rocks are squeezed and wrinkled by compression to form thrust faults and tight holds
accretionary prism
Develop along the edges of continents that are located far from the tectonic effects of plate boundaries and have a long history of passive sedimentation
Atlantic-type margin
Deposits consisting of >30% by volume of particles produced by organisms, such as shells of diatoms, radiolaria, and foraminifera
biogenous sediment
Gravity-induced transport of sediment, such as slumping and turbidity currents
bulk emplacement
composed of calcium carbonate
calcareous ooze
The depth in the ocean below which material composed of calcium carbonate is dissolved and does not accumulate on the seafloor
carbonate compensation depth
Microscopic, unicellular phytoplankton possessing silica valves; they are responsible for much of the ocean's primary production
Chemically precipitated from seawater, these more-or-less spherical masses, a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter, are composed of concentric layers of iron, manganese, and other metal oxides
ferromanganese nodule
Planktonic and benthonic protozoans that have a test composed of calcium carbonate
Vertical grain-size gradation in a layer of sediment, typically with the coarsest particles at the bottom of the bed, the finest at the top
graded bedding
particles that are precipitated by chemical or biochemical reactions in seawater near the sea floor; manganese and phosphate nodules are examples
hydrogenous sediment
An opening in the ground from which pour out hot, saline water solutions
hydrothermal vents
The transport of sediment to the deep sea by floating icebergs which melt and drop their sediment load
ice rafting
A sedimentary rock composed dominantly of calcium carbonate, either precipitated from seawater or deposited as shell debris
Dominated by a subduction zone and are built up of highly deformed sedimentary beds that may be interlayered with lavas and volcanogenous sediment
Pacific-type margin
The inorganic deposit that contains extremely fine-grained particles that typically have a brownish color
pelagic clay
Deep-sea sediment that accumulates on the seafloor by the slow settlement of grains through the water column
pelagic sediment
A hydrogenous deposit consisting of nodules or crusts of P2O5
Microscopic, unicellular planktonic and benthic animals that possess siliceous tests
Sand sediments that are buried, the grains are compacted, cemented, and slowly transformed into sedimentary rock
Mud sediment that is buried, the grains are compacted, cemented, and slowly transformed into sedimentary rock
Material whose composition is silica
siliceous ooze
The sliding of large, cohering blocks of sediment or rock downslope under the influence of gravity
The branch of geology that studies the relationship and significance of layered sedimentary rocks
Sediments derived from the mechanical weathering of rocks on land
terrigenous sediment
Poorly sorted sediment that is deposited by glaciers
Sediment, typically with graded bedding, that is deposited by a turbidity current
A density-driven slurry of sediment-laden water which flows swiftly downhill displacing less dense water
turbidity current
Sediment derived from volcanoes
volcanogenous sediment
A tilted zone of earthquakes associated with collisional plate boundaries known as subduction zones
Benioff zone
A force that pushes together parts of a rock or structure, decreasing its volume
compressional stress
The process whereby continents are and have been in motion relative to one another across the Earth's surface
continental drift
Plates that extend downward through the brittle outer shell of the Earth that includes the crust and uppermost mantle
lithospheric plate
The relatively cool, brittle, outer shell of the earth, some 100 kilometers thick, that includes the crust and uppermost mantle
Long, linear bands of basalt crust that lie parallel to a spreading ocean ridge and that are alternately normally and reversely magnetized
magnetic anomaly stripe
The upwelling of hot material into and through the lithosphere, with magma spilling out onto the Earth's surface and building thick volcanic piles
mantle plume
Oriented as it is at present
normal polarity
This "fossil" magnetization is quite stable over geologic time, particularly in basalts, and provides a clear magnetic record unless the rock has been reheated or deformed
The study of fossils
The megacontinent of the Mesozoic Era that consisted of all of the present-day continents joined together into a single unit
The theory that the Earth's lithosphere is divided into broad, irregular plates that are either converging, diverging, or slipping by one another
plate tectonics
Oriented in the opposite direction
reverse polarity
The fault-bounded valley found along the crest of many ocean ridges; it is created by tensional stresses that accompany the process of sea-floor spreading
rift valley
The process by which basaltic crust is created at the crest of ocean ridges where lithospheric plates are diverging
sea-floor spreading
The distribution, frequency, and magnitude of earthquakes in an area
A high-angle fault, such as a transform fault, along which rocks move horizontally
strike-slip fault
A collisional plate boundary along which one lithospheric overrides another and produces a deep-sea trench, a volcanic arc, and seismicity
subduction zone
Term that denotes deformation of the crust
"pull-apart" force
heat transfer by fluid motion
thermal convection
A steep boundary separating two lithospheric plates along which there is lateral slippage
transform fault