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64 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What does degenerate mean?

Some codons encode for the same amino acid

Where does translation occur?

Within the ribosome

How many amino acids and codons are there?

20 Amino Acids and 64 potential codons

3 steps of translation

initiation, elongation, termination


translation begins with the start codon (AUG) methionine


ribosome uses tRNA anticodons to match codons and amino acids to grow the chain


The RNA polymerase falls off and translation ends at stop codon (UAG, UAA, UGA)

What is the large subunit of the ribosome made up of?

49 proteins and 3 RNA molecules

What is the small subunit of the ribosome made up of?

33 proteins and 1 RNA molecule

3 binding sites for tRNA?

Esite, Psite, Asite

How does translation terminate?

The release factor binds to the A site

What must happen after protein synthesis?

Proteins must fold into their 3D shape

What do proteins do?

Catalyze chemical reactions and control the transport of nutrients

What keeps a protein in its 3D shape?

Non-covalent bonds like ionic, hydrogen and van der waals


hydrophobic interactions

What is primary structure?

Amino Acids linked one by one

What is secondary structure?

Amino Acids chains fold to produce alpha helixes and pleated sheets

What is tertiary structure?

A combination of secondary structures that form a 3D structure

What is Quaternary Structure?

Stable interaction of proteins to form a complex

How are misfolded proteins destroyed?

Ubiquitin tags the error proteins and transport it to a proteosome to be degraded

What is a Prion?

A protein folding disorder

Example of prions

Scrapies, Bovine Spongiform Encephaly and variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease

What does the endocrine system do?

produce hormones that travel great distances to their target cells

What does the exocrine system do?

produce hormones that are secreted directly into ducts leading directly to their target organs

Gene Expression is controlled by:

Transcription Factors, Mutations, Number of Gene Copies and Histone Code

Removing a methyl group will turn

transcription on

Adding a phosphate or acetyl group will turn

transcription on

1.5% of the human genome encodes ________


How is it that proteins outnumber genes?

alternative splicing and cutting of proteins translated from a single gene

What else does the human genome encode for?

viral dna, noncoding RNA, introns, promoters, repeats

What is the difference between a mutation and a polymorphism?

A mutation occurs in less than 1% of the population, a polymorphism occurs in more than 1% of the population.

What is a somatic mutation?

A mutation that occurs in the body cells and isn't transmitted to offspring

What is a germ line mutation?

mutation that has a possibility of being transmitted to an offspring

Examples of mutation diseases?

Sickle cell, early onset Alzheimer's, and Ehler Danlos syndrome

What happens in Sickle Cell?

A Valine is produced instead of a Glutamic Acid, resulting in abnormal aggregation of hemoglobin molecules

What is Thalessemia?

An excess of alpha hemoglobin and a too few beta hemoglobin which leads to heart, liver and endocrine gland damage

What is Ehler Danlos Syndrome?

"The stretchy man" A mutation prevents procollagen chains from being cut

What are spontaneous mutations?

new mutations not caused by exposure to known mutagens and may be due to errors in DNA replication

Mutation Rate Formula

number of cases/2 * (number of individuals in population)

What are mutational hot spots?

Short repetitive sequences, palindromes, duplications of larger regions

What is the Ames Test

in vitro test to test the mutagenicity of a substance

What is a point mutation?

A change of one single nucleotide

What is a missense mutation

Changes the amino acid

What is a nonsense mutation

A mutation that inserts a stop codon

What is a splice site mutation

mutation that alters the site where introns are normally removed

Insertions or deletions NOT in a multiple of 3 lead to:

frameshift mutations

What is a pseudogene?

A DNA sequence similar to a gene but isn't translated (May be transcribed tho)

What is a copy number variant?

Sequences in more than one place in a genome

Silent mutations

do not affect the amino acid encoded

The system for fixing mismatched DNA favors the

newly synthesized strand

Types of DNA damage:

mismatches, deamination, depurination, breaks and crosslinking

What protein monitors DNA repair?

P 53

Trichothiodystrophy cause and effect?

cause: oxidative damage

effect: faulty nucleotide or base excision repair

Colon cancer ?

defect in mismatch repair

Xeroderma Pigmentosa cause and effect?

cause: malfunction of excision repair

effect: must avoid UV light

Ataxia Telangiectasis?

defect in cell cycle checkpoint kinase-> cancer

Cell Specialization depends on:

proteins expressed, amounts of proteins, timing of proteins, how different cell types respond

What is Biotechnology?

The use of cells or biological molecules for specific applications

What is the morphagen model?

Growth factors moved between cells

What is the Sequential Induction Model?

Event takes place in one area and is passed to another area

What is Competence?

The ability of cells to respond to external cutes

What is Commitment?

intrinsic aspect of a cell that makes it follow a particular developmental path regardless of enviornment

What is PCR?

process that replicates and amplifies the amount of DNA sequence in a tube

3 major steps of PCR?

1. denaturation

2. annealing

3. extension

What is recombinant DNA?

the combination of DNA from two different sources (gene cloning)