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19 Cards in this Set

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Benefits of the Human Genome


100% complete.


Discovered diseases related to genes


biotechnology products in clinical trials


BRAC-1 gene which is related to cancer

Benefits of dog genome


Almost complete.


Compared to human genome in order to see diseases that are shared between species


Track the history of different breeds


See how diseases in dogs form to help humans

Benefits of sea urchin genome


Complete


Embryos provide research model for analysis of gene regulatory networks


Benefits of Neanderthal genome

See relationship between Neanderthals and humans

Benefits of Monkey genome

HIV infection, enhancing neuroscience research, reproductive physiology, endocrinology, and cardiovascular studies
Favorite pathogen thingy


Norwalk virus infections.


Edible potato.



Describe replication


Unwound by helicase


RNA primer binds. Then DNA polymerase attaches to leading strand and replicates 3' to 5'. Multiple primers attach to the lagging strand and DNA polymerase attaches, forming Okazaki fragments. Exonuclease gets rid of all the primers. Ligase binds all the fragments and the new strands.




Describe Transcription

Transcription factor and RNA polymerase binds to DNA at initiation point. Runs along DNA, transcribing. T->U. When it hits a termination sequence, it releases. Mature mRNA has a 7mG 5' cap and a 3' poly A tail. Spliced out introns

Describe Translation


Small ribosomal subunit binds to mRNA with tRNA methinone and mRNA AUG sequence. Large subunit binds with tRNA in the p pocket. 2nd amino acid inserted into the A pocket. Peptidyl transferase binds the two amino acids. Released through the E site. Termination codons




What is epigenetics


Above the gene


Chemical modification in histones or DNA that leads to changes in transcription. Methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation.



HKMT


P


PRMT


HAT


Structures of actyl and methyl


Histone lysine methyl transferase


Phosphorylation which happens at serine and threonine


Peptidyl arginine methyl transferase


Histone acetyl transferase


O=C-CH3 And CH3



How epigenetics leads to mutations


Primed cells: no difference at first, invites enzymes to come in and mutate DNA.


Direct effect: change in transcription altering growth patterns


DNA mutation, not epigenetics




Bioinformatics


Blast the sequence


compare it a human genome


look at the coding sequences that are different. Note the differences, insertion, deletion, or substitution. Look at the effect in the protein sequence. Research how this change in the AA sequence affects expression


Insulin


A and B subunit. Put them into appropriate vector with promoter. Transform in E.coli.


Purify from b-gal/subunit. Combine A & B with disulfide bond.


Must know DNA sequence and how it's transcribed and translated




Edible vaccines


Human pathogen inserted into vector


Vector introduced to plant cells


Leaf segments sprout


Eat plant which triggers immune response

Genetically modified plants


800 transgenetic crops.


irradiate coax DNA into germline to ensure it gets into the next generation.


round up ready= glyphosphate, make it express EPSP synthase


Golden rice= b-carotene to prevent blindness






Transgenic animals


atlantic salmon= 10x bigger


dairy cows with staph infections. lysostaphin transgene in milk to kill the staph infection


Glowing fish important to biomed for tacking protein/genes



RFLP


sample tissue from amnio, CVS, blood...


cut at restriction sites. look at southern




Microarrays


ssDNA put on a plate


use cDNA from reverse transcriptase PCR. throw that on plate. Binds to DNA. shows up or down regulation of a gene