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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Benefits of the Human Genome

100% complete.

Discovered diseases related to genes

biotechnology products in clinical trials

BRAC-1 gene which is related to cancer

Benefits of dog genome

Almost complete.

Compared to human genome in order to see diseases that are shared between species

Track the history of different breeds

See how diseases in dogs form to help humans

Benefits of sea urchin genome


Embryos provide research model for analysis of gene regulatory networks

Benefits of Neanderthal genome

See relationship between Neanderthals and humans

Benefits of Monkey genome

HIV infection, enhancing neuroscience research, reproductive physiology, endocrinology, and cardiovascular studies
Favorite pathogen thingy

Norwalk virus infections.

Edible potato.

Describe replication

Unwound by helicase

RNA primer binds. Then DNA polymerase attaches to leading strand and replicates 3' to 5'. Multiple primers attach to the lagging strand and DNA polymerase attaches, forming Okazaki fragments. Exonuclease gets rid of all the primers. Ligase binds all the fragments and the new strands.

Describe Transcription

Transcription factor and RNA polymerase binds to DNA at initiation point. Runs along DNA, transcribing. T->U. When it hits a termination sequence, it releases. Mature mRNA has a 7mG 5' cap and a 3' poly A tail. Spliced out introns

Describe Translation

Small ribosomal subunit binds to mRNA with tRNA methinone and mRNA AUG sequence. Large subunit binds with tRNA in the p pocket. 2nd amino acid inserted into the A pocket. Peptidyl transferase binds the two amino acids. Released through the E site. Termination codons

What is epigenetics

Above the gene

Chemical modification in histones or DNA that leads to changes in transcription. Methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation.





Structures of actyl and methyl

Histone lysine methyl transferase

Phosphorylation which happens at serine and threonine

Peptidyl arginine methyl transferase

Histone acetyl transferase

O=C-CH3 And CH3

How epigenetics leads to mutations

Primed cells: no difference at first, invites enzymes to come in and mutate DNA.

Direct effect: change in transcription altering growth patterns

DNA mutation, not epigenetics


Blast the sequence

compare it a human genome

look at the coding sequences that are different. Note the differences, insertion, deletion, or substitution. Look at the effect in the protein sequence. Research how this change in the AA sequence affects expression


A and B subunit. Put them into appropriate vector with promoter. Transform in E.coli.

Purify from b-gal/subunit. Combine A & B with disulfide bond.

Must know DNA sequence and how it's transcribed and translated

Edible vaccines

Human pathogen inserted into vector

Vector introduced to plant cells

Leaf segments sprout

Eat plant which triggers immune response

Genetically modified plants

800 transgenetic crops.

irradiate coax DNA into germline to ensure it gets into the next generation.

round up ready= glyphosphate, make it express EPSP synthase

Golden rice= b-carotene to prevent blindness

Transgenic animals

atlantic salmon= 10x bigger

dairy cows with staph infections. lysostaphin transgene in milk to kill the staph infection

Glowing fish important to biomed for tacking protein/genes


sample tissue from amnio, CVS, blood...

cut at restriction sites. look at southern


ssDNA put on a plate

use cDNA from reverse transcriptase PCR. throw that on plate. Binds to DNA. shows up or down regulation of a gene