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90 Cards in this Set

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What is the name of the type of effect on function that results in the gene product having less or no function?

Loss of function

What is the name of the type of effect on function that results in the gene product acquiring a new function or expressing increased wild type activity?

Gain of function

___ (Structural/Regulatory) proteins help pack the DNA into the nucleus of the cell

Structural

___ (Structural/Regulatory) proteins turn genes on and off during development

Regulatory

What is the name of the attachment site for the spindle fiber that moves the chromosome during cell division?

Centromere

What is the term for a body cell that contains two copies of each type chromosome?

Diploid

Diploid cells contain ___ (homologous/non-homologous) chromosomes

Homologous

What is the term for chromosomes that carry different sets of genes?

Non-homologous chromosomes

Gametes carry only one copy of each chromosomes, and so are called ___ (diploid/haploid)

Haploid

What is the product of mitosis?

2 identical diploid cells

On a pedigree, what symbol represents females?

Circle

On a pedigree, what symbol represents males?

Squares

On a pedigree, what shade represents the affected?

Dark

On a pedigree, what shade represents the unaffected?

Light

What is the name of the process in which the DNA template strand is "read" and mRNA is produced?

Transcription

What is the name of the process in which mRNA binds with ribosomes and defines a sequence of amino acids needed to produce a polypeptide?

Translation

___ (Genes/Enzymes) work by controlling the biochemical activities for growth and function of cells

Genes

What is the complementary base pair for adenine?

Thymine

What is the complementary base pair for guanine?

Cytosine

What 3 components make up DNA nucleotides?

Deoxyribose (5-carbon) sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base

What are the two purine bases?

Adenine and guanine

What are the 3 pyrimidine bases?

Cytosine, thymine, and urasil

A ___ (purine/pyrimidine) is a 6-membered ring with 2 nitrogens and 4 carbons

Pyrimidine

A ___ (purine/pyrimidine) is a 9-membered double ring system with 4 nitrogens and 5 carbons

Purine

What type of bonds form between complementary base pairs?

Hydrogen

What is the product of transcription?

mRNA

mRNA is synthesized from the DNA ___ (template/coding) strand

Template

The mRNA transcript has the same polarity and sequence as the ___ (template/coding) strand

Coding

What is the name of the components that help regulate the initiation of transcription?

Promoters

At what sequence does transcription end?

Termination sequence

___ (Introns/Exons) are removed from the transcript prior to translation

Introns

What type bonds hold together the amino acid sequence produced from translation?

Peptide bonds

What is the name for the unit that is made up of three consecutive nucleotides on the mRNA?

Codon

What is the usual start codon for translation?

AUG

In what direction do ribosomes move in along the mRNA to assemble the specified amino acid chain?

5' to 3'

What transports amino acids to the ribosome in translation?

tRNA

In translation, complementary base pairing takes place between the mRNA ___ (codon/anticodon) and the ___ (codon/anticodon) of the tRNA

mRNA codon and the tRNA anticodon

What are the four mechanisms of evolution?

Migration, mutation, random genetic drift, natural selection

What mechanism of evolution does the following describe:


The movement of members of a species from one population to another can rapidly alter allele frequencies

Migration

What mechanism of evolution does the following describe:


The slow addition of allelic variants that increase the diversity of a population and serve as "raw material" of evolutionary change

Mutation

What mechanism of evolution does the following describe:


The random chance of allele frequencies due to chance in rapidly mating populations

Random genetic drift

The cladistic approach sorts evolutionary relationships into groups called what?

Clades

What is the name of the diagram that depicts evolutionary relationships among organisms?

Phylogenic tree

What 2 components are found exclusively in DNA?

Deoxyribose and thymine

What 2 components are found exclusively in RNA?

Uracil and ribose

In RNA complementary base pairing, what does A pair with?

U

In DNA complementary base pairing, what does A pair with?

T

In what part of the cell does transcription occur in eukaryotes?

Nucleus

In what part of the cell does translation occur in eukaryotes?

Cytoplasm and rough ER

What are the building blocks of transcription?

RNA nucleotides

What are the building blocks of translation?

Amino acids

What are 3 usual stop codons?

UAA, UAG, UGA

True or false: DNA replication does involve converting thymine to uracil

FALSE

What type of bonds join nucleotides?

Phosphodiester

What is the name of the sugar of DNA nucleotides? How many carbons does it contain?

Deoxyribose. 5 carbons

Adenine and guanine are composed of a ___ (single/double) ring

Double

Thymine and cytosine are composed of a ___ (single/double) ring

Single

What enzyme assembles individual nucleotides into chains?

DNA polymerase

Are dNTPs part of a polynucleotide chain?

No

What is the name of the free nucleotides that can be incorporated into a polynucleotide chain?

dNTPs

Phosphodiester bonds ___ (are/are not) covalent

Are

Phosphodiester bonds are between the ___ (3'/5') hydroxyl group (sugar) of one nucleotide and the ___ (3'/5') phosphate group of an adjacent one

3' hydroxyl group, 5' phosphate group

What type of backbone does a polynucleotide chain have?

Sugar-phosphate

The chemical basis of complementary base pairing is the formation of stable ___ (phosphodiester/hydrogen) bonds between the bases on the antiparallel strands

Hydrogen

How many hydrogen bonds form between A & T?

Two

How many hydrogen bonds form between G & C?

Three

The ___ (antiparallel/complementary) arrangement of the two strands of the double helix brings the partial charges of complementary nucleotides into alignment

Antiparallel

Nucleotide base pairs are spaced along the DNA duplex at intervals of how many Angstroms?

3.4

What is the name of the offsetting of adjacent base pairs so that their planes are parallel?

Base stacking

What 2 grooves are the regions where DNA binding proteins can make direct contact with nucleotides?

Major and minor groove

What are the names of the sequences at which DNA replication begins?

Origins of replication

What enzyme unwinds a double-stranded DNA to expose the two single-stranded template strands?

DNA helicase

What proteins stabilize single strands of DNA during replication?

Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs)

What enzyme synthesizes RNA primer onto a single stranded DNA?

DNA primase

What enzyme adds DNA nucleotides to RNA primer?

DNA polymerase III

The ___ (lagging/leading) strand is made in the opposite direction as the movement of the replication fork

Lagging

Okazaki fragments are made on the ___ (lagging/leading) strand

Lagging

The ___ (lagging/leading) strand is synthesized continuously

Leading

The ___ (lagging/leading) strand is synthesized discontinuously

Lagging

In terms of the lagging strand, what enzyme removes the RNA primer and replaces it with DNA?

DNA polymerase I

What enzyme closes the gaps between adjacent nucleotides, producing a longer, continuous DNA strand?

DNA ligase

Enzymes and other proteins that "read" the template and assemble the substrates into a DNA molecule are called what?

Replisomes

What are the 3 requirements for bacterial DNA replication?

Single-stranded DNA


dNTPs


Replisomes

In bacterial replication, ___ (DnaA/DnaB/DnaC) first binds the 9-mer sequences, bends the DNA, and breaks hydrogen bonds in the A-T rich sequences of the 13-mer region

DnaA

In bacterial replication, ___ (DnaA/DnaB/DnaC) is carried to the DNA helix by DnaC and initiates helicase activity

DnaB

___ (DnaA/DnaB/DnaC) is a helicase that uses ATP energy to break down H bonds of complementary bases to separate the strands and unwind the helix

DnaB

What enzyme prevents the knotting of DNA as strands are separated?

DNA topoisomerase

What enzyme catalyzes controlled cleavage and rejoining of DNA that prevents overwinding?

Topoisomerases

In what direction is the template strand of DNA read?

3' to 5'

In what direction is DNA synthesized?

5' to 3'