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21 Cards in this Set

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PLANES

- the surface on which the movement occurs



1. sagittal


2. frontal


3. transverse







AXES

- the line around which the movement occurs




1. longitudinal axis


2. sagittal (AP) axis


3. frontal axis

1. SAGITTAL PLANE

- vertical plane


- divides body into right & left halves




* forward & backward movements

right & left halves

right & left halves



2. FRONTAL PLANE

- vertical plane


- divides body into front & back halves




* sideward & vertical movements

dorsal/ventral = back/front

dorsal/ventral = back/front



3. TRANSVERSE PLANE

- horizontal plane


- divides body into top & bottom halves




* horizontal & rotational movements

superior/inferior = top/bottom

superior/inferior = top/bottom



1. LONGITUDINAL AXIS


(Y)

- passes from top to bottom


- rotation in transverse plane occurs around longitudinal axis

2. SAGITTAL (AP) AXIS


(Z)

- passes from front to back


- rotation in frontal plane occurs around sagittal axis

3. FRONTAL AXIS


(X)

- passes from side to side


- rotation in sagittal plane occurs around frontal axis

DIRECTIONAL TERMS

1. superior/inferior


2. anterior/posterior


3. medial/lateral


4. proximal/distal


5. superficial/deep

1. SUPERIOR & INFERIOR

SUPERIOR:


- directed upwards


- towards head




INFERIOR:


- directed downwards


- towards feet

2. ANTERIOR & POSTERIOR

ANTERIOR:


- directed towards front of body




POSTERIOR:


- directed towards back of body

3. MEDIAL & LATERAL

MEDIAL:


- nearer midline of body




LATERAL:


- farther from midline of body

4. PROXIMAL & DISTAL

PROXIMAL:


- closest to point of attachment/origin




DISTAL:


- away from origin



5. SUPERFICIAL & DEEP

SUPERFICIAL:


- near surface




DEEP:


- away from surface

MOVEMENTS

1. inversion/eversion


2. dorsiflexion/plantarflexion


3. internal/external rotation


4. abduction/adduction


5. varus/valgus

1. INVERSION & EVERSION

occurs in the frontal plane about the longitudinal axis.




INVERSION:


- sole of foot faces inward toward medial aspect of body




EVERSION:


- sole of foot faces outward towards lateral aspect of body

2. DORSIFLEXION & PLANTARFLEXION

occurs in the sagittal plane about the frontal axis




DORSIFLEXION:


PLANTARFLEXION:



3. INTERNAL & EXTERNAL ROTATION

occurs in the transverse plane about the longitudinal axis




INTERNAL ROTATION:


EXTERNAL ROTATION:

4. ABDUCTION & ADDUCTION

5. VARUS & VALGUS

occurs in the frontal plane about the sagittal axis.




VARUS:


- distal aspect of lower leg moves toward medial aspect of body




VALGUS:


- distal aspect of lower leg moves toward lateral aspect of body

MUSCLES


act @ knee joint to flex, extend, and rotate knee...

extensors:


- quads (rectus femoris, vastus sisters)


- tensor fasciae latae




flexors:


- hamstrings (biceps fem, semiten, semimem


- gracilis


- sartorious




internal rotators:


- semimem


- pes anserinus (semiten, gracilis, sartor)




external rotators:


- biceps fem