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38 Cards in this Set

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Chemical reactions that occur within a living cell.
Metabolism
Metabolic processes that break down molecules.
Catabolism
Metabolic processes that create molecules.
Anabolism
Amount of energy within a system that is available to do work.
Free energy
Chemical reactions that release energy.
Exergonic
Chemical reactions that require the addition of free energy to complete.
Endergonic
Common reaction that produces free energy for use in other reactions.
ATP hydrolysis
A variable amount of energy needed to overcome an unfavorable step in the chemical process. Catalysts help lower this.
Activation energy
Protein-based catalyst.
Enzyme
Molecule that binds to an enzyme.
Substrate
Altering the form of the substrate slightly to better fit the activation site of an enzyme.
Induced fit
Controlling the amount of enzymatic products by turning the enzyme on or off when the quantity of the product or inputs reaches certain levels.
Feedback inhibition
Catabolistic process that does not use oxygen.
Fermentation
Process that converts oxygen to water.
Oxidative phosphorylation
What happens when ATP is hydrolyzed?
A phosphate groups separates and energy is released. The remaining molecule is now ADP.
How does ADP become ATP?
ADP binds with a phosphate group and takes in energy.
Chemical reaction that involves electron transfer.
Redox reaction
In a redox reaction, the chemical that lost electrons has been ____.
Oxidized
In a redox reaction, the chemical that gained electrons has been ____.
Reduced
What types of electrons have a very negative redox potential?
Electrons with a high amount of energy
Breakdown of sugar into pyruvate.
Glycolysis
Part of cellular respiration involving the breakdown of smaller molecules with the release of carbon dioxide.
Krebs Cycle
Process that directly donates a phosphate to ADP to make ATP.
Substrate level phosphorylation
Intermediate steps used to gather energy incrementally from high-energy electrons.
Electron transport chain
Another name for an electrochemical gradient composed of hydrogen ions.
Proton motive force
Protein used to drive the creation of ATP through a hydrogen ion gradient.
ATP synthase
Term meaning "lacking oxygen."
Anaerobic
Organisms that must consume other high-energy oganisms.
Heterotrophs
Process that extracts solar energy for use in chemical processes.
Photosynthesis
Organisms that can extract energy from the environment.
Autotrophs
Cell organelle that is the site of photosynthesis.
Chloroplast
Products of light reactions in photosynthesis.
ATP and NADPH
Products of Calvin cycle in photosynthesis.
Carbohydrates
Molecules that absorb different wavelengths of light.
Pigment molecules
Units of pigment within chloroplasts.
Light-harvesting units
Where do the electrons from photosystem II go?
To photosystem I
Where do the electrons from photosystem I go?
To be used to generate NADPH.
What does the electron transport chain of photosystem II drive?
ATP creation