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445 Cards in this Set

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abolitionist
one who favored abolishing slavery prior to the civil war
aggression
attack by one country on another without any provocation
apartheid
policy of racial segregation and discrimination against blacks and oter non-europeand practiced by the republic of south africa until 1990
appeasement
policy of giving into the demands of an enemy power in an effort to maintain peace
armistice
temporary stopping of war by agreement of both sides before a peace treaty is signed
aryan
term wrongly used by the nazis to refer to a person of german or northern european descent
axis
in world war II, the countries -Nazi Germany, Facist ITaly and Japan -that fought against the united states and its allies
blacklist
list of people or organizations to be avoided in trade or denied employment because of government policy or suspected disloyalty
blockade
action taken to cut off trade and communication with an enemy
boondoggle
spending of public money to create unnecessary jobs
bourgeoisie
the middle class(?!?)
boycott
refusal to deal with a country or an organization for politcal or economis reasons
charter
in colonial times, a grant from the English ruler to a person or corporation giving certain rights and priveleges of settlement
civil war
American war between the northern and southern states
cold war
diplomatic and economic conflict between nations short of actual warfare
colony
settlement in a distant land that remains under control of the country from which its settlers came
compromise
agreement in which each side gives up some things it wanted
conservation
policies and practices that aim at the preservation of natural resources such as forests and wildlife
coup d'etat
sudden overthrow of a government by force
decree
order of a government or a church
desegregation
removal or seperation of races in public places
disarmament
reduction in arms and armed forces as a result of agreement between nations
discrimination
prejiduice in the treatment of one froup, as compared with another, in such matters as jobs, housing, and admission to schools
doctrine
principle or belief or a set of principles or beliefs
dove
one who espouses the cause of peace and/or pursues a conciliatory policy in foreign affairs
edict
official proclamation or decree
emancipation
setting free of a slave or any one else in bondage
embargo
official order preventing ships from entering or leaving the ports of a country for the purpose of commerce
emigration
movement of a person or persons from one country to settle in another
empire
group of states, colonies or teritories joined togeather under the rule of a dominant power
evolution
theory that plants and animals develop from earlier life forms by the passing down, from one generation to the next, of variations that help them to survive
fair deal
continuation and development of the principles of the New Deal by the Truman administration
feminism
movement to win for women, rights eual to those of men in political, social, and economic class
feudalism
medival (9th to 15th century) social and economic organization of society in europe
genocide
systematic killling off of an entire national, racial, or cultural group
hawk
one who advocates an aggressive and warlike approach to foreign policy
heresy
a religious belief opposed to doctrine established by the church
immigration
movement of a person into a new country to settle there
imperialism
policiy of a nation to extend its power by establishing colonies and controlling territories, raw materials, and world markets
industrial revolution
social and economic changes brought about by the development of large scale industrial problems
integration
incorporation of different racial or ethnic groups into free and equal association in a society or an organization
isolationism
policy of a country that is based on unwillingness to take part in international affairs
mandate
authority given by the league of nations to one nation to administer a territory or geographic region
manifesto
public declaration by a government of intention to act or of action taken
medieval
referring to the period in europe between the 9th and 15th centuries
militarism
belief that the military should dominate the government and that military efficiency is the ideal of the state
monarchy
government in which supreme power rests with a king, queen, or emporor and where such power may be absolute or limited
monotheism
doctrine that there is only one -gd
nationalism
doctrine that the interests and security of one's own country are more important than those of other nations or international groups
nazism
system in Germany (1933-1945) that controlled all activities of the people, fostered belief in the supremacy of a Fuhrer (leader) and promoted the german people as master race and the establishment of germany as the dominant world power
new deal
principles and policies of liberal democrats as advocated under the eladeship of President Franklin Roosevelt
nonaggression
reffering to an agreement between two nations not to attack one another
opinions, attitudes, and beliefs
a person's preferences or positions on public matters based on thought or emotion: opiions are short-term, attitudes are more lasting, beliefs deal with the more basic values of life
pacifism
belief that conflicts between nations should be settled by peaceful means rather than by war
pact
an agreement between nations
pan-americanism
belief in political, economic, social and cultural cooperation and understanding between the nations of North, Central, and South America
parliament
the legislative body of great britain, consisting of the house of lords and house of commons
partition
division of a geographic area into two or more countries or into areas annexed to already existing countries
plebiscite
direct vote of all eligible voters on an important political issue
prejuduice
hostile attitude withoutfoundation in fact or knowledge toward an ethnic group or any member of it
prohibition
in the united states the period between 1920 and 1933 when the manufcature and sale of alcoholic drinks was forbidden by federal law
propaganda
systematic spread of ideas or doctrines with a view to convincing others of their truth, using repetition and, in some cases, distortion
protectorate
weaker state protected and in some instances controlled by a stronger state
provisional
referring to a government that functions temporarily until a permanent government is established
puritan
protestant in 16th and 17th century england and america who sought greater reform in the church of england
quota
greatest number of persons who may be admited, as to the united states or to an institution such as college
race
one of three primary divisions of humans -caucasian, negro, and mongoloid- differing in physical characteristics
ratification
granting of formal approval, as to a constitution
reactionary
extreme conservative, one who opposes progress or liberalism
reciprocal
applying by mutual agreement to both parties or concerned , as in trade
reconstruction
period after the civil war (1865-1877) during which the confederate states were controlled by the federal government and recognized prior to readmission to the union
renaissance
period (14th through 16th cenutries) of revival in learning and the arts in europe
reperation
payment by a defeated nation for damages done to persons and property of the victorious country in a war
sanctions
measures taken by a group of nations to force another to stop a violation of internatinal law that it is considered to have made
satellite
a small state that is dependent on a larger, more powerful state and must, as a result, mantain simlair policies
sectionalism
placing of the interests of a section of a country ahead of those of the nation
sedition
acts that tend to forment rebellion against the existing government
segregation
policy or practice of compelling racial and ethnic groups to live apart from each other
self-determination
right of a people to determine its own form of government independently
sharecropper
farmer who doesn not own land but works it for a share of the crop
sovereignty
supreme and independent political authority of a state
status quo
the existing political, social, and economic order
stereotype
fixed belief regarding a person, group, or idea that is held by a number of people and allows no individuality or critical judgement
suffragette
woman who works actively for the right of women to vote
toleration
freedom to hold religious beliefs different from those in authority
trusteeship
authority from the united nations to a country to administer a territory or religion
values
social principles, goals or standards held or accepted by an individual, class, or society
whig
member of a political party that supported limitation of presidential power and opposed the democrats in the united states (1836-1856); also a person who supported the american revolution
zionist
supporter of the movement to establish a jewish national state in palestine; now, a supporter of the State of Israel
act
document made into law by a legislative body
administration
term of office of the executive branch of government
agency
bureau that administers a governmental function
alien
one who owes allegiance to a government or country other than the country in which he resides
alleigiance
duty of a ciizen to his or her government
aliiance
formal agreement between nations to achieve a common purpose
amendment
change or revision made in a constitution or a law
amnesty
general pardon to a group of persons, freeing them from punishment for offenses against a government or society
anarchy
complete absence of government and law with resulting disorder
appellate
court that can recieve appeals and reverse the decisions of lower courts
apportionment
allotment of representatives to a group in proportion to their members
apropriation
money made available by formal act of a legislative body for a specific public purpose
at-large
official chosen by all the voters of a particular election district
autonomy
self government
ballot
1, the paper on which a vote is recorded 2, the right to vote
bicameral
legislature made up of two houses, such as a senate and an assembly or a senate and a house of representatives
bill
preliminary form of a law proposed to a legislative body
bipartisan
representing or composed of members of two parties
bloc
combination of legiskators or nations that acts as a unit with a common interest
boss
politician who controls a politcal machine and had influence over legislation and appointments to office
bureaucracy
government that functions through departments that follow given rules and have varying degrees of authority in the organization
cabinet
group of advisers to the head of a country who usually administer governmental departments
campaign
program of activities designed to elect a candidate to political office
caucus
closed meeting of party members to decide policy or to select candidates for office
censure
reprimand voed by a governmental body of one of its members or of the government or its cabinet
center
in politics, a party or group that follows policies between the left (which advocates change) and the right (which opposes it)
checks and balances
system of government that provides for each branch (executive, legislative, and judicial) to have some control over others
civil liberties
right to think, speak, and act, without interference that are guaranteed to the individual by law and custom
civil rights
rights that are guaranteed to the individual by the constitutin and by acts of congress eg, right to vote
civil service
those in the employ of government who got their positions through open competetive examination on the basis of merit
coalition
temporary alliance of countries or parties for action to achieve some purpose
commission
government agency with administrative, judicial, or legilative powers
committee
group chosen by a legislative body to consider a particular law or topic
conference
meeting of committes from two branches of legislature to settle differences in a bill they have enacted in a bill they have enacted
confirmation
approval by legislative body of an act or appointment by an executive`
congress
the legislature of the united states consisting of the senate and the house of representatives
conservative
person or party that tends to oppose change in government and its institutions
constitution
system of fundamental laws and principles, written or unwritten, by which a people is governed
convention
gathering of members or delegates or a political group for a specific purpose, such as choosing a candidate for office
delegate
1) representative to a convention 2) person empowered to act on behalf of those who choose him or her
democracy
government by the people directly or through representatices chosen to free elections
dictatorship
state ruled by one who has absolute power and authority
election
choosing by vote among candidates for public office
executive
the branch of government charged with administering the laws of a nation
facism
a system of government characterized by power in the hands of a dictator, suppression of opposition parties, and aggressive nationalism (italy 1922-1945)
federal
referring to a system of government in which a constitution divides powers between the central government and such political subdivisions as states
filibuster
tactics, such as nonstop oratory, used by a minority in a legislative body to delay action on a bill
foreign policy
course of action adopted by a country in its dealings with other nations
freedom
civil or political liberty
government
established system of political administration by which a country or its subdivisions is ruled
hearing
session of a legislative committee in which evidence bearing on possible legislation is obtained from witnesses
impeach
to bring charges against a public official for wrongdoing prior to possible trail and removal from office it a conviction is obtained:impeachment
impeachment
the act of brining such charges
inauguration
formal induction into office of a public official
indictment
formal accusation of someone with the commission of a crime, usually after investigation by a grand jury of charges made by a prosecutor
initiative
right of a citizen to bring up a matter of legislation, usuallly by means of a petition signed by a designated number of voters
injunction
court order preventing a person or group from taking an action that might be in violation of the law
judicial
referring to the courts and their functions or to the judges who administer these functions`
jurisdiction
authority of a government or court to interpret and apply the law
law
bill that has been approved by a legislativebody and signed by the chief executive
left
member of a legislative body who take more radical and liberal politcal positions than the other members
legislation
laws made by a legislative body, such as a senate
legislature
laws made by a legislattive body, such as a senate
legislature
group of persons having laws for a nation or a political subdivision of it
liberal
individual or political party whose beliefs stress protection of political and civil liberties, progressive reform, and the right of an individual to govern him or herself
lobby
to attempt to influence legislators to support bills that favor some special group or interest
machine
political organization under the leadership of a boss and his luetenants that controls party policy and job partronage
majority
1) number of voters for a candidate that is greater than the votes for all the other candidates put togeather 2) oarty in a legislative body that commands the largest number of votes
minority
political group that is smaller than the controlling group in a government of legislature and does not have the necessary votes to gain control
municipal
referring to local government such as that of a city, town, or village
municipality
city or town that has the power to govern itself
naturalize
to give the rights of citizenship to a noncitizen or alien
neutrality
policy of a government that avoids taking sides directly or indirectly in disputes between other nations
nominate
to name a candidate for election to public office
ordinance
law enacted by local governmental authority
override
action taken by a legislative body to enact a law that has been dissaproved (vetoed) by the chief executive of a political unit such as a nation or state
pardon
official release from (coninued) legal punishment for an offense
partisan
position or vote that follows party policy("the party line")
party
organization of persons who work to elect their candidats to political office to further the governmental philosophy and causes in which they believe
patronage
power of a political organization or its representative to give jobs
petition
request for specific legal or judicial action that is initiated and signed by an interested individual or group of individuals
plank
one of the items in a party program or platform
platform
statement of the policies and principles of a political party or its candidate for office
plurality
number of votes by which the winning candidate in an election defeats his or her nearest oponent
poll
1) vote as recorded by a voter 2) count of votes cast 3) questioning of a group of people chosen at radom on their views on political and other matters
precinct
subdivision of a town or city that serves as an election unit
pressure group
group of people who seek to change government law or policy through the use of lobbies, propaganda, and media
primary
vote by members of a political party to choose candidates for political office or for some other political purpose
progressive
person or party that stands for moderate political and social change or reform
public opinion
views of people, generally as they influence social and polictal action
quorum
minimum number of legislative body the must be present before the body can legally conduct business
radical
person or party that stands for extreme political and social change
ratify
give formal approval to a document such as a treaty or constituation
recalll
right of or action taken by vote of the people or by petition to remove a public official from office
referendum
practice of submitting to direct popular vote a proposed law or an act that has been passed by a legislative body
reform
political movement designed to correct abuses in government by changes in the law
regime
form or manner of government or rule
registration
signing up of a person in his or her election district
regulate
to control or bring under the control of government or a governmental agency
representative
member of a legislative body chosen to act on behalf of those who elected him or her to represent them
republic
government in which power remains with all the citizens, who are entitled to vote and who elect representatives who act for them and are responsible to them
resolution
formal statement of opinion or intention voted by a legislative or other group
review
reexamination by higher judicial authority of the proceedins or decision of a lower court
revolution
complete overthrow, usually by force of an established government or political system
right
1) members of a legislative body who hold more conservative views than the other members 2) that which belongs to an indiviudal by law or tradition, such as the right to free speech
self-government
government of a people by its own members or their representatives instead of by some outside power
seniority
consideration given to length of service in a legislative body in making assignments to important positions or to membership in committees of that body
social security
federal system of old age, unemployment, and disability insurance for employed and dependent persons
sovereignty
supreme and independent power or authority in government
speaker
public official who presides over a law-making body such as the house of representatives
state
any of the political units that constitute the federal government
statute
law passed by a legislative body
subpoena
written order ti a oerson to appear in court or before a legislative body to give evidence
subversive
referring to an act or a person that would tend to overthrow the existing government
suffrage
right to vote in political election or on politicol matters
summons
written order to appear in court, addressed to a person who may be involved in or have knowledge of a crime
supreme court
highest federal court whose decisions are final and take precendence over those of all other courts
tenure
1) length of time a person holds office 2) an individuals right to hold office until retirement or death
testify
to present evidence in a court under oath
ticket
list of candidates nominated for election by a political party
totalitarian
kind of government in which one political party is in power to the exclusion of all others
treason
betrayal of ones country by actively helping its enemies in their attempt to overthrow it or defeat it in war
treaty
formal agreement, enetered into by two or more nations, dealing with commerce or policies
urban
having to do with a town or city
veto
act or power of a chief executive to turn down a bill pased by a legislative body by actually rejecting it or refusing to sign it
vote
to cast a ballot or take any other necessary action to express one's choice in an election of a candidate for office or of any proposal for legislative change
arbitration
attempt to settle or settlement of, a dispute by submitting it to a thirs party designed to decide it after hearing evidence presented by both sides
asset
property and resources of all kinds of a person or corporation
automation
productiont and distribution of goods automaticalls by mechanical and electronic rather than human means
balance of payments
relationship between a nation's outflow of money (imports, foreign aid) and inflow of money (exports and gifts)
balance sheet
financial statement balancing the assets, liabilities and net worth of an individual or a business
banking
practice or recieing, keeeping, lending, or issuing money and making easier exchange of funds
bankruptcy
financial condition in which a person or business is found legally unable to pay creditors
barter
system of trading in which one good is exchanged for antoher without the use of money
budget
statement of an individual, business, or government in which expcted incomes are allocaed as expenses in designated necessary areas
business
buying and selling of commodities and service for a profit
capitalism
economic system based on private ownership of the means of production with freedom of private enterprise to earn a profit under free market (competitve conditions) conditions
cartel
combination of businesses to establish a national or internationsl monopoly by limiting competition
caste
social class or group formed on the basis of birth or wealth, existing under strict rules within a social system, with little or no movement into or out
census
official count of the population of a country (required every ten years in the united states constituion)
certificate
document that shows that a person owns stock and is entitled to the benefits and liabiliteises of a stockholder
collective bargaining
negotiation between management and labor regaurding wages hours working conditions and other benefits
commerce
large scale buying a selling of goods involving transportation of the goods between cities or countries
commodity
any good that is bought or sold in a commercial transaction
communism
economic system based on ownership of all property by the state and in marx's view on equal distibution of economic goods through revolutionary means
compensation
payment given as a recompense for an injury or loss, as to a owrker who has been hurt on the job
competition
in a free enterprise system, the attempts by rival businesses to get customers for the goods tehy manufactire or distribute
consumer
one who uses goods or servises out of need
consumer price index
single number that compares consumer prices in one year with prices paid by consumers in previous years
contract
agreement between two or more people or companies to do something, set forth in writinge or orally and enforceable by law
corporation
group of individuals who possess shares and have the privileges and obligations of a single personm with limited liability
cost
amount if money, labor, and other expenses involved in producing or obtainning goods or services
craft
members of trade requiring special skills, such as printing
crash
sudden decline in market values of shares in a business
credit
money, based on a persons economic standing, that he or she is allowed to borrow and repay at a later date
creditor
person or institution to whom money is owned
currency
money, such as a coin or bank notes that is in circulation in a country
customs
duty or tax leveled by a government on imported and exported goods
cycle
inbusiness a sequence of events that occurs and recurs in a given order and involves boom, downturn, depression or recesion and recovery
debt
obligation of an indivudal or coporation to pay something to a creditor
deficit
amount by which a corporation's or a government's debts are greater than its credits or assets
deflation
fall in prices brought about by a decrease in spending
demand
desire and ability to pay for goods and services usually within a given price range at a given time
depletion
using up of natural resources such as oil and timber
deposit
money put into a bank or given in partial payment for something purchased
depreciation
decrease in value of business property or equipment through wear and tear
depression
period of low business activity wide unemployment, and falling prices
devaluation
lowering of the exchange value of one currency with respect to another by decreasing the amount of gold backing it
discount
amount deducted from the original price of something sold
discrimination
process of making goods and services available to consumers, as well as the promotion of the buying and selling of these goods and services
economics
science that deals with the production, distibution, and consumption of goods and services
economic system
manner in which a nations resources are used and goods and services are produced and distributed
economy
structure and functioningof a nations economic system
entrepreneur
person who enters into business and risks his or her skills, time, and money in the hope of earning profit
equilibrium
market price at which supply equals demand
excise
tax on the production, sale or use of certain commodities within a country
export
goods sold by one country to another
extended family
family that includes other relatives beyond the immediate nuclear (parents and kids) family
fiscal
having to do with taxes, public revenues, or public debt
foreign exchange
currency that can be used to pay international debts
fringe
benefit given by an employer that although not paid directly aw wages, involves a cost to the employer
goods
merchandise
gross national product (gnp)
total value of nation's annual output of goods and services
import
goods brought into by onecountry from another
income
money recieved by a person or business organization for work or services perpormed or from investment or property
industry
businesses as a group that are engaged in manufacturing
inflation
rise in prices caused by an increase in the amountof money in circulation or vu an increase in the amount of spending resulting from greater demand than supply
input
amount of money and or manpower invested in a project or process
installment
system of credit in which goods purchased are paid for over a period of time by partial payments
interest
1) charge for money borrowed usually expressed as a percentage of the money lent 2) money paid to a depositor for money left in a bank for a stated period
investment
money put into a business or property in the hope of recieving income or earning a profit
labor
economic group of wage earning workers
levy
tax imposed or collected by a government or other authority
liability
dbt owed by a business a corporation or other authority
lockout
prevention by an employer of his or her workers from working during a dispute
loss
amount by which the cost of an article sold is greater than the selling price
management
those who direct the affairs of a business or industry
margin
difference between the cost and the selling price of a product
market
buying and selling of goods and property
mediation
entry of a third party into a dispute between management and labor, with the intention of settling it fairly
merger
combination of two or more businesses or corporations in which one of them eventually controls the others
monetary
having to do with the money of a country
money
coin or paper stamped by government authoirity, used as a medium of exchange and measure of value
monopoly
exclusive control of a product or service iin a market so that prices for the product or service can be fixed and competition eliminated
note
written promise to pay a debt, such as a promissory note
obsolescence
process by which the plant and equipment of a business become outdated and can no longer be used efficiently to produce the goods needed
output
work done or amount produced by a person, machine, or assembly line in a given period
overhead
costs involved in running a business such as those for rent and electricity
panic
period in which fear of economic collapse results in frenzied attempts to convert propertym goods, and securities into cash
partnership
form of business organization in which two or more eople put money or property into a business and share the profits or loses
poverty
extreme lack of the things necessary to sustain life, such as food shelter and clothing
price
amount of money or its equivalent for which anything is bought sold or offered for sale
production
creation of economic value by making goods and services available to meet the needs of consumers
productivity
degree of ability to produce goods and services of economic value
profit
amount by which the selling price of an article sold is greater than the cost
property
possessions that may be personal (movable) land or real estate or securities (stocks and bonds)
prosperity
condition in which the economy of a country or a business enjoys a state of well being
recession
period of temporarily reduced business activity
rent
income recieved by a land or property owner for the use of his or her land or property
resources
natural and human assets that can be used to produce economic goods or provide services
revenue
income from taxes and other sources that is available for use on behalf of the public
savings
total money saved by an indivuidual or a nation
scab
employee of a business who coninues to work during a strike against that business
scarcity
gap between the supply of goods produced and human needs
securities
documents, usually bonds or stock certificates that are evidence of either indebtedness that has economic value`
services
duties performed or work done for others that has economic value
shop
if open, a business establishment where workers are employed regardless of union membership if union one in which labor and management agree that all employees must be union members
slum
highly crowded area in which housing is rundown, sanitary conditions are poor, and poverty is widespread
socialism
ownership and operation of the means of production and distribution by society rather than by private persons with all members sharing in the work and the products
socioeconomic status
position in society based on social and economis factors such as wealth
speculation
use of capitol to buy and sell stocks, propertym commodities, and businesses in situations where above-average risk is taken
standard of living
level of subsistence of a country or an individual that takes into account possession of the necessities and comforts of life
stock
shares held by an individual in a corporation
strike
work stoppage carried out by workers to force the employer to improve working conditions and benefits and/or increase wages
subsidy
sum of money given by a government to a privaate individual or business in the public interest
subsistence
lowest level of food, clothing and shelter needed to sustain life
supply
amount of goods over and above is needed
surplus
amount of goods and services available for sale usually within a given price range at a given time
surtax
tax that is added to an already exsisting tax
tariff
tax imposed by a country on imported goods
tax
sum that an individual or corporation is required by the government to pay on income or property or an object purchased
technology
use of a scientific knowledge in industry and commerce
trade
buying and selling of economis goods
trust
combination of corporations in an industry to control prices and eliminate competition
underdeveloped nation
country inadequately developed economically and indusrially with a relatively low standard of living
unemployment
condition of being out of work
union
organization or workers that seeks to protect and advance the interests of its members with respect to working conditions and wages usually through collective bargaining
wages
money paid to an employee for work done
wealth
everything having economic value measurable in price
welfare
referring to a state or nation in which government rather than private organizations assumes the primary responsiblity for the well being of its citizens
wildcat
referring to a strike that takes place without the permission of the union representing the striking workers
altitude
elevation of an object above sea level
antarctic
relatinf to the region near the south pole
archipelago
group of many islands
arctic
relating to the region around the north pole to approximately 65 degrees N
basin
body of water partly or fully enclosed
bay
inlet of the sea or other body of water usally smaller than a gulf
bayou
lake occupying the abondoned part of a stram chanel
bluff
steep rise of ground between bottom land and higher land on the shore of a river sea or lake
canyon
deep, narrow valley with steep sides cut by a river
climate
average weather conditions at a given place over a period of years as evidenced by temperature precipitation and winds
conservation
planned management of natural resources to prevent explotation destruction or neglect
continent
one of the great land areas of the earth
cyclone
violent storm or a system of winds rotating about a calm center of low atmospheric pressure, traveling at a speed of 20mph to 30mph and accompanied by rain
delta
triangular or fan shaped area of low lying land formed by deposits at the mouth of a river
desert
dry, barren expanse of land unable to support normal plant and animal life
drought
prolonged period of lack of rainfall
earthquacke
shaking or trembling of the earth that is volcanic in origin or involves the earths crust
ecology
science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their enviroments
elevation
height above the level of the sea
enviroment
climactiv, soil, and living factors that influence an organism or an ecological community
equator
great circle of the earth that is equidistant from the north and south poles and divides the earths surfaces into the northern and southern hemispheres
equinox
one of two times each year when day and night are everwhere of equal length
erosion
wearing away by the action of water wind or glacial ice of the surface features of the earth -mountains, plateaus, valleys, coasts
far east
countries of east asia including japan china and korea, and southeast asia and the malay archipelago
fault
break in the earths crust accompanied by a displacement of one side of the break with respect to the other
fauna
animals or animal life of a region
flora
plants or plant life of a region or special envirmoent
front
boundary between differening air masses that differ in temperature
geyser
hot spring that from time to time violently ejects boiling water and steam
glacier
large mass of ice and snow moving slowly down a mountain or valley
globe
spherical model of the earth
grassland
area of grass or grasslike vegetation such as a prarie
gulf
large area of a sea or ocean partially enclosed by land
habitat
region where a particular plant or animal naturally lives
high
center of high atmospheric pressure
humidity
moisture or water vapor in the atmosphere
hurricane
severe tropical cyclone having winds of over 75 miles per hour and usually involving heavy rains
island
land mass, smaller than a continent, entirely surrounded by water
isthmus
narrow strip of land having water at each side and connecting two larger bodies of land
jungle
land densely overgrowwn with tropical vegetation and trees
lake
relatively large inland body of water
landlocked
surrounded by land, as a bay
latin america
part of the western hemisphere south of the united states, mexico central america the west indies and south america
latitude
distance north or south of the equator measured in degrees
legend
title or key accompanying an illistration or map
longituted
distance east or west of the prime meridian
low
region of depressed barometric pressure
map
representation on a flat surface of all or part of the earth
meritime
on, near, or living near the sea
mediterranean climate
climate characterized by warm dry summers and rainy winters
meridian
any of the lines of longitute
mesa
high broad and flat platuea bounded by a steep cliff
metroplis
any large, important city
middle east
lands from the eastern shores of the mediterranean and aegean seas to india
migration
movement of people from one region or country to another with the intention to settle there
monsson
seasonal wind that blows over the indian ocean from australia to india
natural resources
forms of wealther supplied by nature such as coal oil and water power
oasis
place in a desert that is fertile because of the presence of water
ocean
any of the five main divisions of the body of salt water that covers over 70 percent of the earths surface atlantic pacific indian arctic or antarctic
parallel
imaginary line parallel to the equator and representing degrees of longitute on the earths surface
peninsula
land area almost entirely surounded by water and connected to the mainland by a narrow strip of land
plain
extent of level country
plateau
elevated tract of fairly level land
polar ice cap
mass of glacial ice that spreads slowly out in all directions from the poles
population density
number of people in a given area
population explosion
very great and continuing increase in human population in modern times
prairie
large area of level or slightly rolling grassland that occupies the region between the ohio and the mississippi-missouri rivers
precipitation
rain snow sleet deposited on earth
prime meridian
great circle on the earths surface from which longitute is measured both east and wast 0degrees longitude
rainfall
amount of water falling in the form of rain snow etc over a given area and in a given period of time
rain forest
dense evergreen forest occupying a tropical region that has abundant rainfall throughout the year
range
a series of connected mountains forming a single system
raw material
material still in its natural or original state, before processing or manufacture
region
lrage indefinite part of the earths surface
relative humidty
amount of moisture in the air expressed as a percentage as compared with the maximum amount that the air could contain at the same temperature
revolution
movement of a heavenly body as a star or planet, in an orbit or circle
rotation
turning of a body such as the earth around a center point or axis
scale
proportion that the size of a feature on a map bears to the actual size of the feature it represents
sea
large body of salt water wholly or partly enclosed by land
season
any of four divisions of the year, characterized chiefly by differences in temperature precipitation amount of daylight and plant growth
solsitce
either of two points on the suns path at which it is farthest north of farthest south of the equator
sound
wide chanel or straight linking two large bodies of water or seperating and island from the mainland
steppe
in europe and asia cast usually level plain having few trees
strait
narrow waterway connecting two large bodies of water
subcontinent
large subdivision of a continent
subtropical
reffering to regions bordering on the tropical zone
taiga
forests of cone bearing trees in the far north of europe asia and north america
temperature zone
one of two zones between the tropics and the polar circles
terrace
any of a series of flat platforms of earth with sloping sides rising one above the other as on a hillside
terrain
natural or surface features of a tract of land
thunderstorm
storm accompanied by thunder and lightning
tidal wave
unusually large wave sent inshore by an earthquake or a very strong wind
tides
alternating rise and fall of the surfaces of oceans and of waters connected with them caused by the attraction of the moon and the sun and occuring twice in approximately 24 huors
topography
surface features of a region, including hills valleys rivers lakes and manmade features canals bridges and roads etc
tornado
violently whirling colomn of air, extending down from amass of storm clouds that usually destroys everything in its rapid advance along a narrow path
torrid zone
area of earths surface lying between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricorn and divded by the equator
tributary
stream or river flowing into a larger stream or river
tropics
area between the tropic of cancer and capricorn 23.5 degrees north and south of the equator
tundra
any of the vast nearly level treeless and marshy plains of the arctic and extreme northern regions
typhoon
violent tropical cyclone originating in the west pacific especially in the south china sea principally from july to october
valley
stretch of low land lying between hills or mountains and usually having a river or stream flowing through it
volcano
cone shaped mountain built up around a vent to form a crater with lava cinders ashes and gases escaping though the vent from the earths interior when the volcano is active
weather
general condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and place with regard to temperature moisture cloudiness etc
westerlies
winds blowing primarily from the west
wind
air naturally in horizontal motion at the earths surface coming from any direction with any degree of velocity