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25 Cards in this Set

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Improvements in microscope technology


allowed people to see microorganisms in water

1830s
First Cholera epidemic in British towns. Kills rich and poor.
1831—1832
Edwin Chadwick published his ‘Report into the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population’, suggesting poor people lived in filthy conditions which caused a huge amount of ill health and death, This meant people were too sick to work. He suggested better quality housing, improved drainage, etc, would mean less sick workers, leading to economic improvement.
1842
Chadwick’s report led to the first government law on Public Health. The Public Health Act. Towns are told to clean up, but they were not forced to. Many people are opposed to it.
1848
More cholera outbreaks. John Snow begins to realise cholera is not spread through air
1849
Compulsory smallpox vaccination introduced by government
1853
John Snow proves cholera is spread through dirty water through his work around the Broad Street Pump in London
1854

Joseph Bazalgette starts to build London’s


sewers

1856
The Great Stink in London– hot summer, foul smelling river Thames got right up the noses of the MPs in the new Houses of Parliament
1858
Pasteur publishes his Germ Theory, proving the link between bacteria/germs and disease
1861
Most poor working men get the vote
1867
A law is passed to improve or demolish slum housing
1868
Artisans Dwelling Act makes it law that landlords keep their properties in good condition and allows councils to demolish homes that are not
1875
Food and Drugs Act attempts to tighten up on food that is sold to try and ensure it is fit to eat
1875
2nd Public Health Act—this one is compulsory, towns must keep streets clean, provide decent sewers, etc. Towns can charge taxes to pay for these improvements, but they must happen. It is no longer optional.
1875

River Pollution Prevention Act makes it illegal for factories to dump their waste, including


chemicals, into rivers

1876
The Labour Party had been set up to represent the needs of working men. The Liberal Party realised they would need to make changes if they were to get any working class votes. Also, a new breed of Liberal MPs, especially Lloyd George, genuinely wanted to do something to improve the lives of the poor.
1900
Britain was involved in the Boer War. The government/army was shocked to discover two-thirds of men who volunteered to fight failed the fitness tests
1901
Free school dinners for children in need
1906
Education Authorities had to provide medical checks for school children and later clinics
1907

Punishments could be given to people (parents/ employers) neglecting or treating children


cruelly

1908
Government funded pension. Old people over 70 with no other income would get 5 shillings a week. This made a dramatic difference to their lives, but taxes were put up to pay for it—not popular with the rich
1908
Labour Exchanges set up by government to help unemployed find work (a bit like Job Centres today)
1909
National Insurance Act—Part 1) This was a really important Act— It provided unemployment pay (dole) for 15 weeks in return for two and a half pence a week
1911
National Insurance Act—Part 2) This was a really important Act—Free medical treatment and sick pay if workers were ill, in return for a payment of 4 pence a week.
1911