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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Causes of HYPERkalemia (MACHINE)


M: Meds (ACEI, steroidsm beta blockers)

A: acidosis

C: cellular destruction (rhabdo, burns, trauma)

H: Hypoaldosteromism, hemodyalasis

I: impaired excretion, impaired

N: nephrons, renal failure

E: excessive Intake

Symptoms of HYPERkalemia (MURDER)


M: muscle weakness

U: Urine, oliguria, or anuria

R: resp distress

D: decreased cardiac contractility

E: EKG changes (peaked T waves or small P waves)

R: reflexes, hyper or hypo

causes of HYPOkalemia (GRAPHIC IDEA)

G: GI losses

R: Renal

A: Aldosterone

P: periodic paralysis

H: hypothermia

I: insulin excess

C: cushings

I: insufficient intake

D: diuretics

E: elevated beta adrenergic activity

A: alkalosis

signs of HYPOkalemia (6 L's)


Lethal cardiac arrhythmia

Leg cramps

Limp muscles

Low, shallow respirations

Less stool (constipation)

HYPOcalcemia ECG

prolonged ST segment

prolonged QT interval

HYPERcalcemia ECG

shortened ST segment

widened T wave

HYPOkalemia ECG

ST depression

shallow, flat, or inverted T wave

prominent U-wave

HYPERkalemia ECG

all peaked T waves

flat P waves

widened QRS complex

prolonged PR interval

HYPOmagnesemia ECG

tall t-waves

depressed ST segment

HYPERmagnesimia ECG

prolonged PR interval

widened QRS complexes

chvostek's sign

contraction of facial muscles in response to a light tap over the facial nerve in front of the ear

- sign of hypocalcemia

trousseaus's sign

carpal spasm induced by inflating a blood pressure cuff

HYPERcalcemia causes

(refer to p. 96)

increased calcium absorption

decreased calcium excretion

increased bone respiration of calcium


HYPOcalcemia causes

inhibition of calcium absorption from GI tract

increased calcium excretion

conditions that decrease the ionized fraction of calcium

HYPomagnesemia causes

-insufficient magnesium intake (celiac, disease)

- increased magnesium secretion (diuretics, chronic alcoholism)

- intracellular movement of magnesium (hyperglycemia, insulin admin, sepsis)

HYPERmagnesemia causes

-increase magnesium intake

-decreased renal excretion of magnesium as a result of renal insufficiency

what is the antidote for magnesium overdose?

calcium gluconate

HYPOphosphatemia causes

- decrease in phosphorus = increase in calcium level

- insufficient phosphorus excretion

- intracellular shift

HYPERphosphatemia causes

- decreased renal excretion resulting from renal insufficiency

- tumor lysis syndrome

- increased intake of phosphorus, including dietary intake or overuse of phosphate-containing laxatives or enemas