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19 Cards in this Set

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Causes of HYPERkalemia (MACHINE)



MACHINE




M: Meds (ACEI, steroidsm beta blockers)


A: acidosis


C: cellular destruction (rhabdo, burns, trauma)


H: Hypoaldosteromism, hemodyalasis


I: impaired excretion, impaired


N: nephrons, renal failure


E: excessive Intake







Symptoms of HYPERkalemia (MURDER)

MURDER




M: muscle weakness


U: Urine, oliguria, or anuria


R: resp distress


D: decreased cardiac contractility


E: EKG changes (peaked T waves or small P waves)


R: reflexes, hyper or hypo

causes of HYPOkalemia (GRAPHIC IDEA)

G: GI losses


R: Renal


A: Aldosterone


P: periodic paralysis


H: hypothermia


I: insulin excess


C: cushings




I: insufficient intake


D: diuretics


E: elevated beta adrenergic activity


A: alkalosis

signs of HYPOkalemia (6 L's)

Lethargy


Lethal cardiac arrhythmia


Leg cramps


Limp muscles


Low, shallow respirations


Less stool (constipation)

HYPOcalcemia ECG

prolonged ST segment


prolonged QT interval

HYPERcalcemia ECG

shortened ST segment


widened T wave

HYPOkalemia ECG

ST depression


shallow, flat, or inverted T wave


prominent U-wave

HYPERkalemia ECG

all peaked T waves


flat P waves


widened QRS complex


prolonged PR interval

HYPOmagnesemia ECG

tall t-waves


depressed ST segment

HYPERmagnesimia ECG

prolonged PR interval

widened QRS complexes


chvostek's sign

contraction of facial muscles in response to a light tap over the facial nerve in front of the ear


- sign of hypocalcemia

trousseaus's sign

carpal spasm induced by inflating a blood pressure cuff

HYPERcalcemia causes

(refer to p. 96)


increased calcium absorption


decreased calcium excretion


increased bone respiration of calcium


hemoconcentration

HYPOcalcemia causes

inhibition of calcium absorption from GI tract


increased calcium excretion


conditions that decrease the ionized fraction of calcium

HYPomagnesemia causes

-insufficient magnesium intake (celiac, disease)


- increased magnesium secretion (diuretics, chronic alcoholism)


- intracellular movement of magnesium (hyperglycemia, insulin admin, sepsis)

HYPERmagnesemia causes

-increase magnesium intake


-decreased renal excretion of magnesium as a result of renal insufficiency

what is the antidote for magnesium overdose?

calcium gluconate

HYPOphosphatemia causes

- decrease in phosphorus = increase in calcium level


- insufficient phosphorus excretion


- intracellular shift

HYPERphosphatemia causes

- decreased renal excretion resulting from renal insufficiency


- tumor lysis syndrome


- increased intake of phosphorus, including dietary intake or overuse of phosphate-containing laxatives or enemas


-hypoparathyrodism