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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Organizational Party
The workers and activists who staff the party's formal organization
original jurisdiction
term used to describe a court's power to initially try a case. Courts in which cases are first heard are those with originial jurisdiction in the case, appellate courts hear challenges to earlier court decisions
People who believe that moral rules are derived from the commands of God or the laws of nature; these commands and laws are relatively clear, unchanging, and independent of individual moral preferences. They are likely to believe that traditional morality is more important than individual liberty and should be enforced by government and communal norms. See also Progressive (Ch. 4)
OSHA created?
The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was created by Congress under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, signed by President Richard M. Nixon,on December 29, 1970. Its mission is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and deaths by issuing and enforcing rules (called standards) for workplace safety and health. This same act also created the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a research agency whose purpose is to determine the major types of hazards in the workplace and ways of controlling them. OSHA's statutory authority extends to most nongovernmental workplaces where there are employees. State and local government workers are excluded from Federal coverage, however, states operating their own state workplace safety and health programs under plans approved by the U.S. Department of Labor cover most private sector workers and are also required to extend their coverage to public sector (state and local government) workers in the state.
our federalism
created by Ronald Reagan, Sandra Day O'Connor, Antonin Scalia, William Rehnquist. presumes power of the fed gov is limited in favor of the broad powers reserved to the states
The constitutional power of congress to supersede a president's veto by a two-thirds majority in both houses.
Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)?
The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) is an agency of the U.S. government established in 1971 that helps U.S. businesses invest overseas and promotes economic development in new and emerging markets. OPIC operations cost nothing to American taxpayers because it charges market-based fees for its products and services. The agency has earned a profit in each year of operations — $175 million in 2002 — and built its reserves to more than $4 billion.
Congressional review of the activities of an agency, department, or office
Cancellation of criminal punishment. Presidents and governors have the power to grant pardons to those awaiting trial and to those convicted of crimes.
Legislative body of Great Britain. It is divided into 2 houses, although one house, the House of Lords, has little power. The other house is the democratically-elected House of Commons.
Partnership for peace
President Clinton announced in 1993 a policy that allowed for the gradual admission into NATO of new member nations from the former Warsaw Pact and gave the designation of associate status in NATO to Russia.
party caucus
a meeting of the members of a party in a legislative chamber to select party leaders and to develop party policy, republicans call them conferences
party column ballot
type of ballot that encourages party line voting by listing all of a party's candidates in a column under the party name
party convention
a meeting of party delegates to vote on matters of policy and in some cases to select party candidates for public office
Party dealignment
A shift away from the major political parties to a more neutral, independent ideological view of party identification.
Party eras
A time period characterized by national dominance by one political party. There have been four major party eras in American history - the era of good feeling, the Republican era following the Civil War, the Democratic era following the election of Franklin Roosevelt, and the Republican era following the election of Richard Nixon.
Party Identification
A citizen's personal affinity for a political party, usually expressed by his or her tendency to vote for the candidates of that party
Party in the electorate
The voters who consider themselves allied or associated with the party
Party machine
The party organization that exists on the local level and uses patronage as the means to keep the party members in line. Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall are examples.
Party organization
Formal structure of a political party on the national, state, and local levels.
Party platforms
Voted on by the delegates attending the National Convention, they represent the ideological point of view of a political party.
Party polarization
A vote in which a majority of Democratic legislators oppose a majority of Republican legislators. (Ch. 11)
Party Realignment
A shifting of party coalition groupings in the electorate that remains in place for several elections
party registration
the act of declaring party affiliation; required by some states when one registers to vote
Party regulars
Enrolled party members who are usually active in the organization of a political party and support party positions and nominated candidates.
Party-column ballot
A ballot listing all candidates of a given party together under the name of that party; also called an "Indiana" ballot. See also Office-bloc ballot (Ch. 8)
(PAY-truh-nij, PAT-ruh-nij) The power of a government official or leader to make appointments and offer favors. Once in office, a politician can use patronage to build a loyal following. Though practiced at all levels of government, patronage is most often associated with the machine politics of big cities. (See spoils system.)
Peace Corps
An agency of the United States government that sends American volunteers to developing nations to help improve living standards and provide training. Created by President John F. Kennedy in 1961, under the auspices of the Department of State, the Peace Corps provides an opportunity to share American wealth, technology, and expertise. During the cold war it also served as a means for spreading American influence and values in the hope of preventing developing nations from allying themselves with the Soviet Union.
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act?
Established the United States Civil Service Commission, which placed most federal employees on the merit system and marked the end of the so-called "spoils system." Drafted during the Chester A. Arthur administration, the Pendleton Act served as a response to President James Garfield's assassination by Charles J. Guiteau (a "disappointed office seeker"). The Act was passed into law on January 16, 1883.
Per curiam opinion
A brief, unsigned opinion issued by the Supreme Court to explain its ruling. See also Opinion of the Court (Ch. 14)
A short form of perquisites, meaning "fringe benefits of office." Among the perks of political office for high-ranking officials are limousines, expense accounts, free air travel, fancy offices, and staff assistants. (Ch. 12)
permissive federalism
sharing of power and authority between the national and state gov, the states portion is upon the permission of the national government
Personal Campaign
That part of a political campaign concerned with presenting the candidate's public image
Personal following
The political support provided to a candidate on the basis of personal popularity and networks. (Ch. 7)
Personal Liberty
Freedom to engage in a variety of practices, free from gov't discrimination
Founded in 1956 by President Eisenhower, the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB) is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. According to its self-description, it "...provides advice to the President concerning the quality and adequacy of intelligence collection, of analysis and estimates, of counterintelligence, and of other intelligence activities. The PFIAB, through its Intelligence Oversight Board, also advises the President on the legality of foreign intelligence activities.
Photo ops
Photo opportunities.
The party that initiates a lawsuit to obtain a remedy for an injury to his or her rights. (Ch. 14)
Any of the principles contained in a political party's platform.
statement of purpose and policy objectives drafted and approved by political parties at their national conventions, they rarely exert much influence on day-to-day politics
plea bargain
An agreement that permits a defendant to plead guilty to a lesser charge instead of pleading not guilty to a more serious one. Plea bargaining is usually undertaken by a prosecutor to obtain important information from a defendant or to avoid a long and costly trial
Pledge of Allegiance
Also called the “Pledge to the Flag.†The American patriotic vow, which is often recited at formal government ceremonies, including Independence Day ceremonies for new citizens: I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all." The phrase under God, added in 1954 (more than sixty years after the pledge was originally published), has inspired heated debate over the separation of church and state.
A group theory that involves different groups all vying for control of the policy agenda. No single group emerges, forcing the groups to compromise.
Winning number of votes received in a race containing more than two candidates but which is not more than half of the total votes cast.
Plurality system
An electoral system, used in almost all American elections, in which the winner is the person who gets the most votes, even if he or she does not receive a majority of the votes. (Ch. 7)
pocket veto
If the president fails to approve a bill passed during the last 10 days of a Congressional session, the bill does not become a law.
Police power
The power of a state to promote health, safety, and morals. (Ch. 3)
Policy agenda
Agenda that results from the interaction of linkage institutions.
Policy entrepreneurs
Those in and out of government who find ways of pulling together a legislative majority on behalf of unorganized interests. See also Entrepreneurial politics (Ch. 15)
policy implementation
the process by which executive departments and agencies put legislation into practive, they are often allowed a degree of freedom to interpret legislation as they write guidelines to enact and enforce the law
political action committee
(PAC) Fundraising apparatus of interest groups; donations are regulated by federal law; contribute heavily to the reelection campaigns of representatives and senators sympathetic to the PAC's political agenda.
Political agenda
A set of issues thought by the public or those in power to merit action by the government. (Ch. 15)
Political consultant
Person who specializes in running a political campaign. James Carville and Karl Rove are examples of political consultants.
Political culture
A broadly shared way of thinking about political and economic life that reflects fundamental assumptions about how government should operate. It is distinct from political ideology, which refers to a more or less consistent set of views about the policies government ought to follow. Up to a point people sharing a common political culture can disagree about ideology. See also Political ideology (Ch. 4)
Political editorializing rule
A rule of the Federal Communica-tions Commission that if a broadcaster endorses a candidate, the opposing candidate has a right to reply. (Ch. 10)
Political efficacy
A citizen's belief that he or she can understand and influence political affairs. This sense is divided into two parts--internal efficacy (confidence in a citizen's own abilities to understand and take part in political affairs) and external efficacy (a belief that the system will respond to a citizen's demands). (Ch. 4)
Political Ideology
Set of coherent values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of gov't
Political machine
A party organization that recruits its members by dispensing patronage--tangible incentives such as money, political jobs, or an opportunity to get favors from government--and that is characterized by a high degree of leadership control over member activity. (Ch. 7)
Political participation
The different ways an average citizen gets involved in the political process ranging from conventional means of influencing government to more radical unconventional tools that have influenced our elected officials.
Political party
A group of people joined together by common philosophies and common approaches with the aim of getting candidates elected in order to develop and implement public policy. It is characterized by an organization that is responsible to the electorate and has a role in government.
political predisposition
a characteristic of individuals that is predictive of political behavior
Political question
An issue that the Supreme Court refuses to consider because it believes the Constitution has left it entirely to another branch to decide. Its view of such issues may change over time, however. For example, until the 1960s the Court refused to hear cases about the size of congressional districts, no matter how unequal their populations. In 1962, however, it decided that it was authorized to review the constitutional implications of this issue. (Ch. 14)
Political Socialization
The process through which an individual acquires particular political orientations; the learning process by which people acquire their political beliefs and values.
Political subculture
Fundamental assumptions about how the political process should operate that distinguish citizens by region, religion, or other characteristics. (Ch. 4)
Role played by elected representatives who act as trustees or delegates, depending on the issue
Who gets what, when, how, and why.
Poll tax
A requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote. It was adopted by many states to prevent former slaves (most of whom were poor) from voting. It is now unconstitutional. See also Grandfather clause; Literacy test (Ch. 6)
Pollution allowances (or banks)
A reduction in pollution below that required by law that can be used to cover a future plant expansion or sold to another company whose pollution emissions are above the legal requirements. (Ch. 21)
popular consent
the idea that a just gov must derive its powers from the consent of the people it governs
popular sovereignty
a belief that ultimate power resides in the people
The belief that greater popular participation in government and business is necessary to protect individuals from exploitation by inflexible bureaucracy and financial conglomerates. “Power to the people” is a famous populist slogan.
People who hold liberal views on economic matters and conservative ones on social matters. They prefer a strong government that will reduce economic inequality, regulate businesses, and impose stricter social and criminal sanctions. The name and views have their origins in an agriculturally based social movement and party of the 1880s and 1890s that sought to curb the power of influential economic interests. (Ch. 5)
Position issue
An issue dividing the electorate on which rival parties adopt different policy positions to attract voters. See also Valence issue (Ch. 8)
postmaster general
The head of the United States Postal Service. Until 1970, the postmaster general was head of the federal Post Office Department and a member of the president’s cabinet. In 1970, the Postal Service was set up as an independent agency in place of the Post Office Department. The Postal Service is operated like a private corporation, although postal workers receive the benefits of federal employees.
Poverty line
References the point at which an individual is considered living in what has been called a "culture of poverty."
The ability of one person to get another person to act in accordance with the first person's intentions. (Ch. 1)
power elite
A term used by the American sociologist (see sociology) C. Wright Mills to describe a relatively small, loosely knit group of people who tend to dominate American policymaking. This group includes bureaucratic, corporate, intellectual, military, and government elites who control the principal institutions in the United States and whose opinions and actions influence the decisions of the policymakers.
power of the purse
The influence that legislatures have over public policy because of their power to vote money for public purposes. The United States Congress must authorize the president’s budget requests to fund agencies and programs of the executive branch. (See appropriation.)
powers prohibited to states
making treaties with foreign govs, authorising private persons to prey on the shipping and commerce of other nations, coining money/issuing bills of credit/making anything but gold and silver coin legal tender in payment of debts, taxing imports or exports, taxing foreign ships, keeping troops or ships in time of peace (except the state militia, now called the National Guard), engaging in war (unless invaded or in such imminent danger as will not admit delay)
The introduction to the Constitution, outlining the goals of the document.
prior judicial decision that serves as a rule for settling subsequent cases of a similar nature
the right of a federal law or regulation takes precedence over enforcement of a state or local law or regulation
president pro tempore
Individual chosen to preside over the Senate whenever the vice president is unavailable to do so. Chosen by the senate from among its members.
Presidential primary
Elections held in individual states to determine the preference of the voters and to allocate the number of delegates to the party's national convention.
presidential ticket
the joint listing of the presidential and vice presidential candidates on the same ballot as required by the 12th amendment
One who believes that Article II's grant of executive power is a broad grant of authority allowing a president wide discretionary powers
Press briefing
A relatively restricted session between a press secretary or aide and the press
Press secretary
Key White House staff position; the press secretary meets with the White House press corps.
pressure group
An organized group that tries to influence the government to adopt certain policies or measures. Also called an interest group. (See lobby.)
Price supports
The government's price guarantees for certain farm goods. The government subsidizes farmers to not grow certain crops and also buys food directly and stores it, rather than let the oversupply in the market bring the prices down.
Print Press
The traditional form of mass media, comprising newspapers, magazines, and journals
Prior restraint
The traditional view of the press's free speech rights as expressed by William Blackstone, the great English jurist. According to this view the press is guaranteed freedom from censorship--that is, rules telling it in advance what it can publish. After publication, however, the government can punish the press for material that is judged libelous or obscene. (Ch. 18)
privacy, right of
The doctrine, advanced by the Supreme Court most notably in Roe versus Wade, that the Constitution implicitly guarantees protection against activities that invade citizens’ privacy. The Constitution does not explicitly mention a right of privacy, but the First Amendment’s protection of free speech, the Fourth Amendment’s guarantee against “unreasonable searches and seizures,” the Ninth Amendment’s reference to “other” rights, the Court has ruled, imply a right of privacy. This doctrine exemplifies broad construction. (See Griswold versus Connecticut.)
Private bill
A legislative bill that deals only with specific, private, personal, or local matters rather than with general legislative affairs. The main kinds include immigration and naturalization bills (Ch. referring to particular individuals) and personal-claim bills. See also Public bill (Ch. 11)
Privileges and immunities
The guarantees that the rights of a citizen in one state will be respected by other states. Also a clause in the Fourteenth Amendment that protects citizens from abuses by a state.
probate court
(PROH-bayt) A court that has jurisdiction over wills, estates, and guardianship of children.
Procedural due process
A series of steps that are established by the Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Amendments that protect the rights of the accused at every step of the investigation.
Process regulation
Rules regulating manufacturing or industrial processes, usually aimed at improving consumer or worker safety and reducing environmental damage. (Ch. 15)
Proclamation of 1763
Prohibited colonists from settling west of the rivers running through the Appalachians. It was issued in response to numerous Native American attacks on the settlers. This angered colonial settlers, who regarded it as unwarranted British interference in colonial affairs. The ban was repealed in 1766.
A person who believes that moral rules are derived in part from an individual's beliefs and the circumstances of modern life. Progressives are likely to favor government tolerance and protection of individual choice. (Ch. 4)