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169 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which two regions in France are famous for champage, where are they located, and which is further north?
Bourgogne (Burgundy)

Northeast France, with Champagne as the most northern region
Subregions in Burgundy?
Cote d'Or (Cote de Nuits, Cote de Beaune)
What characteristic geographical feature is in Champagne?
limestone-chalky soil with a low pH (good for sparkling wines)
What climate-related reason causes wines from Champagne to be acidic, with low sugar and alcohol levels?
Have to harvest grapes early due to rain
Who invented champagne, and when?
Dom Pierre, a Benedictine monk
Who invented riddling (remuage)? What is riddling?
Mme. Barbe Clicquot
Separation of yeast from sparkling wine (use of racks to collect yeast in bottleneck)
Who invented the Brut style? What is the Brut style?
mme. Louise Pommery
Very dry style of champagne
Who marketed "premium" champagne?
Mme. Camille Roederer
What did the Versailles treaty in 1919 and the US-EU treaty in 2005 do?
Versailles- protected the word Champagne so that Germany couldn't use it

US-EU: also protected the word Champagne from use outside of the French region of the name, though older wines already using the word were 'grandfathered' in
What company is the largest seller of sparkling wines in the US?
In millions of dollars, how much does:

US export to Europe?
Europe export to US?
France export to US?
$487 million
$2,300 million
$974 million
T/F, champagnes have to age for a long time.
What are "non-vintage" champagnes?
How did champagne sabering start? What precautions should be taken (and why)?
Napoleon's soldiers did it for convenience when riding horses.

Keep the bottle cold to reduce the pressure when opening it; Pressure inside is 90psi = 6atm
3 main varieties grown in Champagne to make champagne?
Chardonnary (28%)
Pinot Meunier (34%)
Pinot Noir (38%)
What is a "Maison?" What are the "Grandes Marques?"
"Great Brands"
3 Methods of champagne making?
Methode Champenoise
Methode Traditionnelle
Methode Classique
Describe the Methode Champenoise.
-Start with base wine.
-Blend, add yeast & sugar
-2nd fermentation (in bottle)
-Cork/wire Cage
What are "Blanc de Blancs" and "Blanc de Noirs?" Give the flavor and an example of each.
Blanc de Blanc
-White wine from white grapes
-Citrusy flavor
-example: Chardonnay

Blanc de Noir/Meunier
-White wine from black grapes (actually a rose)
-cherry flavor
-example: Pinot Noir/Meunier
What does "Prise de mousse" refer to?
yeast used for 2nd fermentation (in the bottle)
What are "remuage," "degorgement," "dosage," and "bouchage/museletage?"
Remuage- riddling (removing yeast settled on side of bottle)

Degorgement- disgorging (freeze bottleneck to shoot out pellet of ice + yeast)

Dosage- refilling bottle to top & adding sugar if desired

Bouchage/museletage- adding cork + wire cage
When extra sugar is added during the dosage step, why doesn't a 3rd fermentation take place?
B/c the yeast has been removed (by riddling & disgorging)
Scale used to describe champagne dryness? Hint: based on amount of residual sugar
Extra brut: <6 g/L
Brut: <15 g/L
Extra dry: 12-20
Sec: 17-35
Demi-sec: 33-50
Doux: 50+
Describe the other methods to make sparkling wine:

Charmat process
Transfer method
Methode ancestrale
Artificial carbonation
Charmat process: tank/tank fermentation & pressurized bottling
Transfer method: tank/bottle/tank
Methode ancestrale: bottle, no disgorging
Artificial carbonation: tank + CO2
Cremant de Bourgogne, Mousseux de Savois, Blanquette methode ancestrale, and Petillant de Bugey are all ?
Other "Vins Effervescents"
What is the geography of Chablis like? What are the wines like?
Rolling hills, good for drainage, limestone soil
Wines are mineraly.
What are the names of the two groups of high quality wines in Chablis?
Grand Cru
Premier Cru
Typical aromas of Chardonnay?
green apple
white peach
What is unique about labels of Chablis wines?
ID vineyards of estate separately b/c each has a different microclimate (can assume it's a chardonnay)
Burgundy makes _% red and _% white wines.
Red: 40%
White: 60%
What are Negociants?
companies that buy up wine from small producers and sells under own name
the Grand Cru wines of Burgundy tend to be located?
on slopes
Typical aromas of Pinot Noir?
wild mushrooms
black tea
What is the "Hospices de Beaune?"
A winery & auction
What is Romanee Conti?
the winery that makes the MOST expensive wines in Burgundy!
For wine to be drinkable for decades, what attribute must the grapes have initially?
Must be strong to start with
What is the variety of grape that Beaujolais is known for?
Gamay Noir a Jus Blanc

(or just "Gamay")
What is Beaujolais' main export wine?
Beaujolais Nouveau
Describe carbonic maceration in excruciating detail.
-use whole clusters of intact, undestemmed berries
-add CO2 (anaerobic atm.) at 85-95 degrees F --- can also use N2 or Ar
-Maceration/partial fermentation by grapes' own enzymes
-Press grapes after 8-10 days and add yeast
-Complete alcoholic fermentation at 60-70 degrees F
-enjoy a light red, fruity wine!
What is the advantage of carbonic maceration?
Red wine can be made without aging it very long. Don't need to buy oak barrels.
Characteristics of wine that is produced with carbonic maceration.
-fruity, w/ distinct aroma
-loss of varietal character
-reduced acidity, more alcohol (+2%)
-low in tannins, no oak (fast sale)
-little aging potential (according to some)
What is Beaujolais Nouveau?
A red wine made from Gamay grapes produced in Beaujolais; the most popular vin de primeur, fermented for just a few weeks then officially released for sale on the third Thursday of November (from Wikipedia)
Where is Bordeaux? Geographical features (water, soil, and climate)?
Southwest France
Seaport (60 Mi. from Atlantic)
Garonne River
Well-drained gravel soil
Mild climate
What is the largest fine wine-making region in the world? What is it known for?
Blended red wines
Name the five major districts of Bordeaux.
St. Emilion
Problems due to climate in Bordeaux?
Rains during harvest time; may not be able to ripen varieties fully (use early-ripening varieties)
Characteristic of Bordeaux wines?
heavily extracted
lots of tannins (don't remove skins & seeds right away)
age for a long time
What region is known for its Chateaux?
What is a chateau in wine nomenclature?
a vineyard w/ winemaking & storage facilities on the property
(some have modest houses, and some have none)
What typifies Burgundy? Bordeaux?
Burgundy: small vineyards divided into parcels among separate owners

Bordeaux: vineyard estates (chateaux) belonging to single owners
Rank the classifications for Burgundy & Bordeaux according to price, from most expensive to least expensive.
Grand Cru
Premier Cru

Grand Cru
Cru bourgeois
T/F, Bordeaux is not classified in a single official ranking.

Medoc, Sauternes, Barsac, Graves, and Saint-Emilion districts have their own internal classification systems.
The classification of 1855 further classified Grand Cru estates into ?
First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Growth
Name the First Growth estates of the grand cru.
Chateau Margaux
Chateau Latour
Chateau Lafite-Rothschild
Chateau Mouton-Rothschild
Chateau d'Yquem
Chateau Haut-Brion
Chateau Petrus (not original)
Single most important district in Bordeaux?
Red wine varieties permitted for AOC Medoc? White wine varieties?
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Franc (cold hardy)

Wite: only permitted an AOC Bordeaux label
Graves is characterized by?
gravelly soil that gives 'earthy' aroma to wine
What is Sauternes famous for?
micro-climate -- intense morning mist and mid-day sun (good for growing mold)
How are Sauternes grapes harvested?
over-ripened, with noble rot & very high sugar content (35-40 Brix compared to 22-25 normal)
What is the only white wine first growth chateau, and where is it located?
Chateau d'Yquem
located in Sauternes
Dominant varieties grown in St. Emilion?
Merlot and Cabernet Franc
region in Bordeaux that produces finest red wines, despite never having been classified
Dominant wine in Pomerol?
The AOC in the Vallee de la Loire are limited to? Why is this good?
Limited to "village"
Good b/c it levels the playing field
Name the 5 major districts in the Vallee de la Loire; what is their major product (red v. white)?

White wines
What does "sur lie" mean?
wine has been left on its lees (yeast settled to bottom of tank) in the tank/barrel
What is considered the Loire's best district? What is most widely cultivated there?
Sauvignon Blanc (bouquet called "Fume")
What climatic phenomenon is responsible for the Rhone Valley's unexpectedly cool weather?
the cold "Mistral" wind blowing southerly down from the Alps
Primary Red Grape varieties grown in the Vallee du Rhone
Syrah (main)
Mourvedre (Mataro)
Grenache (the "workhorse")
Carignane and Cinsault
Primary White Grape varieties grown in the Vallee du Rhone
The Vallee du Rhone is divided into two sub-regions. What are they, what are their AOCs, and which is superior?
North = superior
AOCs: Cote Rotie, Condrieu, Crozes-Hermitage, Hermitage

AOCs: Chateauneuf-du-Pape
Soils in lower Rhone region have what characteristic?
"moon-like" rocky plain
What region in Germany produces wine (unlike the rest of the country, which produces beer)?
Southwestern Germany
Difficulties with growing grapes in Germany? Benefits?
Cool-climate --> hard to ripen grapes

Advantages: rivers to moderate temperature, steep hillside slopes, slate-covered vineyards for nighttime release of heat
T/F, overproduction of wine is a problem in Germany, but Europe overall drinks more than it produces.
FALSE!!!! That's craziness.

Truth: Over-production is a problem in Europe, but Germany drinks more than it produces.
Which 3 countries import the most wine each year?
1. Germany
2. UK
3. US
Does Germany grow more white or red wine?
WHITE -- mostly Riesling
Riesling aroma?
citrusy, mineraly
Germany's most popular red variety?
Pinot Noir (in German: Spatburgunder)
Levels of sweetness classifications
Dry ("Trocken") <9g/L sugar
Semi-dry ("Halbtrocken") <18g/L
Off-dry = sweet
T/F, German wine labels tend to have way too much information!
What is "Erstes Gewachs?"
the new German "Premier Cru"
What are Beeren-Auslese, Trocken-Beeren-Auslese, and Eiswein?
dessert wines
What does the Botrytis cinerea fungus do?
perforates the cell walls to dehydrate grapes
What is Germany's most prestigious wine region?
Germany's quality classification is based on?
Characteristics of German wines?
crisp (high acidity), fruity, floral
usu. low in alcohol (~10%)
oak aging is uncommon
T/F, Germans are sexy.
What is the US definition of a "table wine?"
wine with <14% alcohol
Italian Classifications from best to 'worst'
IGT (80% of production)
Vino da Tavola
What does "Vino da Tavola" mean?
-European "table wine"
-no varietal name or vintage date
Most famous wines of Italy (top 5)
Brunello di Montalcino
Chianti Classico
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano
What are included in the 'non-classifications?'
Super Tuscans & Piedmonts
-non-trad blends, usu. produced with non-native varieties
What does "Riserva" mean (by law)?
wine has been aged at least 2 years in a barrel, only the "best" grapes have been selected, and a minimum alcohol content was achieved during fermentation
The most famous red wines and best sparkling wines from Italy come from which region?
What is Asti Spumante (subregion of Piedmont) known for?
sparkling wine
what are the famous wines of Tuscany?
Chianti Classico
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano
Brunello di Montalcino
What's special about a passito?
concentrated sugars, acids, aromas
dehydrated berries by temp. & humidity-controlled drying
What is grappa?
brandy, made by distillation
Wine growing regions in Spain? Portugal?
Rias Baixas
Ribera del Duero
La Mancha

Why doesn't Spain get high yield from vineyards?
b/c of irrigation regulations
Aging requirements for Spanish wine?
Gran Reserva - 5 years
Reserva - 3 years
Crianza - 2 years
What country are the following classifications for?

Describe the following 'unique DOC wines:'

Vinho Verde
Cava: metodo tradicional sparkling wine
Sherry: fortified/oxidized wine from Jerez
Madeira: fortified/oxidized wine from Madeira
Port: fortified/oxidized wine from Oporto
Vinho Verde: effervescent wine from Entre-Douro-e-Minho
What is a bodega in terms of Spanish wine labels?
the name of the vineyard where the grapes were grown
What is the famous white variety of Rias Baixas?
What is the famous red variety of Rioja and Ribera del Duero?
In which DOCa are the best wines in Spain produced?
Most common red & white grape varieties in Spain? Best varieties?
Most: Airen, Viura, Palomino
Best: Albarino, Verdelo, Godello, Pedro Ximenez

Most: Garnacha, Bobal, Monastrell, Carinena
Best: Tempranillo, Garnacha, Carinena, CS/Merlot, Syrah
Name the world's larges AO (DO).
La Mancha (known for inexpensive wines)
What is the purpose of biological aging with FLOR yeast?
b/c the FLOR yeast lives on the surface of the wine, it keeps the wine from oxidizing
Categories of sherry?
Medium or Cream
Why does sherry have 18% alcohol?
b/c organisms can't live in it
What is the SOLERA principle?
used for blending sherry; stacked barrels with wine transferred to lower barrels periodically
Major Port Wine Varieties in Portugal?
Touriga Nacional
Tinto Cao
Tinta Barroca
Tinta Roriz
Touriga Francesca
Describe the production of port in Portugal.
-harvest red varietals
-crush in lagares (by foot)
-allow to ferment about half-way
-drain fermenting juice into brandy
-port wine sweet + fortified
-barrel/ bottle age
describe the following port nomenclature terms:

vintage: designated year, 2 yr. in barrel, long time in bottle
LBV: 4-6 yr. in barrel
Crusted: less than 2 yr. in barrel, bottle unfiltered
Tawny: 3+ yr. in barrels
Ruby: sweet, fruity, 0-3 yr. in barrel
White: white grapes, often dry, ~15%
percent alcohol in brandy?
percent sugar in must?
percent alcohol & residual sugar in port wine?
19%, 10%
Characteristics of Madeira production?
-acidic base wine
-fortified w/ brandy to 16-20%
-baked in 'estufa'
-sweetness adjusted w/ vinho surdo
-bottle aged for 100+ years
What do malmsey, boal, verdelho, and sercial describe? Rich, sweet, medium, dry?
varietal nomenclature for Madeira
nomenclature for wines <85% varietal
When is the wine harvest in South America? (Hint: remember it's in southern hemisphere)
February - April
How much older are wines in southern hemisphere than wines in northern hemisphere of the same vintage?
~6 months
What advantage does Chile have, due to its isolated location & use of furrow irrigation, that helps reduce costs?
don't need to use a lot of pesticides
What is the Humboldt current and which country benefits from it?
frigid stream of water from Antarctica that brings cold air and cloudy, foggy weather to the coastal regions and into river valleys; creates fairly constant, moderate temperatures
T/F, Chile has a wide variety of micro-climates.
False. Because it is so narrow, many regions in Chile have similar climatic conditions.
T/F, growing grapes in Chile is difficult compared with other regions in the world.
False. It's relatively easy to grow grapes in Chile.
T/F, Chile relies on exporting its wine.
What is the most famous wine growing area of the Central Valley of Chile?
Maipo Valley
Aconcagua, Casablanca, Maipo, Rapel, Curico, Maule, and Itata are regions in which country?
La Salta, Cafayate, La Rioja, San Juan, Mendoza, San Rafael, and Neuquen are regions in which country?
What are Colchagua and Cachapoal?
export-relevant sub-appellations of the Rapel Valley in Chile
Does Chile make mostly red or white wines?
What is Chile's special red variety?
Name the major red and white varieties of Chile.
Red: Cab Sauvignon, Pais (Mission), Merlot, Carmenere, Syrah

White: Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscat of Alexandria, Semillon
Major wine region of Argentina?
What is Argentina's climate like?
cool, little rain but plenty of irrigation water, dry weather = no mildew, intensive sun exposure due to altitude
Argentina's finest red wine variety?
Name Argentina's most common red & white varieties.
Red (90%): cereza italiana, criolla/pais/mission, malbec, bonarda, cabernet sauvignon

white: torrontes, chardonnay, chenin blanc, semillon, sauvignon blanc
What is Constantia?
a model farm established in South Africa; also the name of a sweet wine that was very popular in Europe
What is Stellenbosch?
region in South Africa
Does South Africa have a good climate for grape-growing?
Yes; the climate is almost perfect, with dry summers and mild winters; also located bet. two oceans, keeping it cool
What type of architecture can be found in South Africa due to its settlers in the 1600s?
Major regions in South Africa?
-Coastal region
-Breede Rivery Valley
-Olifants River
-Little Karoo
South Africa's unique red variety?
Majore Red & White varieties of South Africa?
Red: CS, Syrah, Pinotage, Merlot, Cinsault

White: Chenin Blanc, Colombard, SB, Chardonnay, Muscat of Alexandria
Chenin blanc is used to make?
What climatic problems does Australia face?
salinity, heat, drought
T/F, Australia exports a lot of wine.
Why is there so much research focused on viticulture in Australia?
-the universities are supported by a tax on grapes
finest region in AUS?
Barossa Valley
Most grapes grown in AUS are grown in the ?.
Finest wine regions in AUS?
Adelaide Hills
Barossa Valley
Clare Valley
Margaret River
McLaren Vale
Mornington Peninsula
Yarra Valley
What is used to keep birds from eating grapes in AUS?
Why do visitors have to wear shoe covers in AUS vineyards?
keep phylloxera out!
What type of trees in AUS add a special character to the wines?
Characteristic soil of Coonawarra in AUS?
terra rossa (red soil) on top of layer of limestone
Australians were the first to use _____, which were long banned in Europe, to add flavor to wine.
wood chips
Where was the 'bag-in-a-box' idea, which keeps wine fresh, developed?
@ Purdue!!!!
Australia's most popular red variety?
Top varieties in AUS? (red & white)
red: syrah, CS, merlot, pinot noir

white: chardonnary, semillon, riesling, SB
What is Rotundone?
an aroma compound in Syrah (AKA Shiraz)
Australia's most pop. white variety?
Does AUS grow mostly whites or reds?
Reds (69%)
Why is AUS so mechanized?
lack of migrant workers
Marlborough, Hawke's Bay, Gisborne, Canterbury, Auckland, Otago, and Wellington are assoc. with which country?
New Zealand!!!!
Does NZ grow mostly white or reds?
WHITE (80%)
Top varieties in NZ?
Red: pinot noir, merlot, CS

White: SB, Chardonnay, Riesling
NZ's best known grape variety? Most popular red?
Pinot noir
NZ doesn't make all that much wine, so why is it so popular?
Beautiful scenery attracts wine writers.