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11 Cards in this Set

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Variable:

In computer programming, a variable or scalar is a storage location paired with an associated symbolic name (an identifier), which contains some known or unknown quantity or information referred to as a value.

Function:

In this sense, a function is a type of procedure or routine. Some programming languages make a distinction between a function, which returns a value, and a procedure, which performs some operation but does not return a value. Most programming languages come with a prewritten set of functions that are kept in a library.

Declaration:

a declaration specifies properties of an identifier: it declares what a word (identifier) means.[1] Declarations are most commonly used for functions, variables, constants, and classes, but can also be used for other entities such as enumerations and type definitions.[1] Beyond the name (the identifier itself) and the kind of entity (function, variable, etc.), declarations typically specify the data type (for variables and constants), or the type signature (for functions); types may also include dimensions, such as for arrays. A declaration is used to announce the existence of the entity to the compiler; this is important in those strongly typed languages that require functions, variables, and constants, and their types to be specified with a declaration before use, and is used inforward declaration.[2] The term "declaration" is frequently contrasted with the term "definition",[1] but meaning and usage varies significantly between languages; see below.

Statement:

In computer programming a statement is the smallest standalone element of an imperative programming language that expresses some action to be carried out. It is an instruction written in a high-level language that commands the perform a specified action.[1] A program written in such a language is formed by a sequence of one or more statements. A statement may have internal components (e.g., expressions).Many languages (e.g. C) make a distinction between statements and definitions, with a statement only containing executable code and a definition declaring anidentifier, while an expression evaluates to a value only.[2] A distinction can also be made between simple and compound statements; the latter may contain statements as components.

Expression:

An expression in a programming language is a combination of explicit values, constants, variables, operators, and functions that are interpreted according to the particular rules of precedence and of association for a particular programming language, which computes and then produces (returns, in a statefulenvironment) another value. This process, like for mathematical expressions, is called evaluation. The value can be of various types, such as numerical, string, and logical.For example, 2+3 is an arithmetic and programming expression which evaluates to 5. A variable is an expression because it denotes a value in memory, so y+6 is an expression. An example of a relational expression is 4≠4, which evaluates to false.[1][2]In C and most C-derived languages, a call to a function with a void return type is a valid expression, of type void.[3] Values of type void cannot be used, so the value of such an expression is always thrown away.

Scope:

In computer programming, the scope of a name binding – an association of a name to an entity, such as a variable – is the part of a computer program where the binding is valid: where the name can be used to refer to the entity. In other parts of the program the name may refer to a different entity (it may have a different binding), or to nothing at all (it may be unbound). The scope of a binding is also known as the visibility of an entity, particularly in older or more technical literature

Flow-Control:

In computer science, control flow (or alternatively, flow of control) refers to the specification of the order in which the individual statements, instructions orfunction calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated. The emphasis on explicit control flow distinguishes an imperative programming language from a declarative programming language.Within an imperative programming language, a control flow statement is a statement whose execution results in a choice being made as to which of two or more paths should be followed. For non-strict functional languages, functions and language constructs exist to achieve the same result, but they are not necessarily called control flow statements.

Imperative programming

In computer science terminologies, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that describes computation in terms of statements that change a program state. In much the same way that the imperative moodin natural languages expresses commands to take action, imperative programs define sequences of commands for the computer to perform. Imperative programming (necessary programming) is focused on describing how a program operates.The term is often used in contrast to declarative programming, which focuses on what the program should accomplish without prescribing how to do it in terms of sequences of actions to be taken.

Declarative programming

n computer science, declarative programming is a programming paradigm, a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs, that expresses the logic of a computation without describing its control flow.[1]Many languages applying this style attempt to minimize or eliminate side effects by describing what the program should accomplish in terms of the problem domain, rather than describing how to go about accomplishing it as a sequence of the programming language primitives[2] (the how being left up to the language's implementation). This is in contrast with imperative programming, in which algorithms are implemented in terms of explicit steps.Declarative programming often considers programs as theories of a formal logic, and computations as deductions in that logic space. Declarative programming may greatly simplify writing parallel programs.[3]

Protocol

A protocol is a set of rules that governs how two or more communicating parties are to interact

Port

A port is an address that identifies which process is set to receive a message that is delivered to a given machine.