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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Disease: definition?
A malfunction of a METABOLIC process, or disturbance of NORMAL STRUCTURE, that is caused by some biotic or abiotic agent
Characteristics of ABIOTIC disease agents?
Examples of abiotic disease agents?
moisture & temp extremes
-nutrient excess, deficiency
-hail, wind, snow, ice damage
Characteristics of BIOTIC disease agents?
living, infectious and /or parasitic
Major cause of BIOTIC disease?

responsible for:
56% growth loss
28% mortality
Main examples of BIOTIC disease agents?
fungus. bacteria, viruses, parasitic higher plants, nematodes
Characteristic of Fungal diseases?
-non green plants
-mutualistic, saprophytic or parasitic
-regenerate using spores (usually asexually produced, single celled)
-have HYPHAE (filamentous bacteria)
Term for mass of HYPHAE (filamentous branching fungi).
Major cause of growth loss damage (specifically)?
Heart Rot Fungi

accounts for 70%
*causes rot and cell wall decay as fungi break down heartwood for food.
Heart Rot fungi lifecycle
point of entry
-fruiting structures (mushroom, concs, cankers,
-back to point of entry
A ________ expands in all directions from the fungus' point of entry forming a flat expansion
release cut
a cut that frees desirable young trees (NOT PAST THE SAPLING STAGE) from competing undesirable vegetation that threatens to suppress them.
Girdling ?
kills trees bycutting off xylem and phloem
-use 2 cuts because soemtimes regrows/heals.
-"quick and dirty" but may require follow up.
Improvement cut
a cut made in stands PAST the sapling stage for the purpose of improving the SPECIES COMPOSITION and QUALITY of the remaining trees.
the act of CONTROLLING BRANCH FORMATION to reduce knots, improve crown form or tree health, safety or aesthetics
steps in natural pruning (3)
1. low branches die back due to lack of sunlight
2.HARDWOOD branches decay or fall of
3. healing over wound (clearwood)
defect free wood
artificial pruning
removal of branches by saw, hand pruner/pruning shears or loppers.
proper pruning hints...where to cut
cut above (but near) branch collar, protect branch collar to prevent fungal infection...a chemical protective barrier forms at branch collar.

-make flush cuts
-cause bark ripping
best to prune in which season?
pruing: what portion should be left in living crown?
2/3 of tree height
maximum crown removal in one cutting?
best to prune when branches are _____in diameter
<1.5 inches
For sawlog & veneer production prune at what stage?
POLE stage
1st cut @ 9 ft (for 8 ft boards)
2nd cut at 17 ft (for 16 ft logs)
Silivicultural Protection
Manipulating forest vegetation to enhance its ability to protect itself from natural damaging agents (insects, wind, disease, fire animals, etc.)
Methods of silivicultural protection
-pruning (fire doesn't reach canopy)
-sanitation cut (cut out sick trees)
-species & age diversity
-slash removal (Fire hazard)
in cubic feets:
total annual US forest growth
Annual mortality
annual removal/harvest
growth: 34.5 billion
mortality: 7.8 billion (1/3 of loss)
harvest:15.5 billion (2/3 of loss)
Biggest killer of forests?
Endemic population (insects)
Natural low populations of native insect species in an area; equilibrium numbers
Outbreak (insects)
When population numbers increase dramatically in a short time
biggest forest growth inhibitor (kingdom)?
Epidemic population (insects)
when population numbers exceed its general equilibrium and significant economic loss occurs
Reproductive potential (insects)
Maximum ability of an insect to multiply in the absence of any controls
Eg. pine bark beetle. 1 feamle lays 50 eggs--->25 females---->they lay 625 eggs, etc down the generations
Environmental resistance
controlling factors present in the environment keeping the insect population from reaching its reproductive potential
Examples of environmental resistance to insect populations?
Abiotic: Temp, moisture
Biotic: Disease, predators, parasites, competition, tree vigor, food supply
Insects that undeergo complete metamorphosis? (egg, larva, pupa, adult)
beetles, butterflies, moths, wasps, flies
Insects thaqt undergo gradual metamorphosis? (egg, nymph adult)
scale insects, aphids, bugs termites
Insect that accounts for 90% of insect tree mortality?
*they also account for 60% of growth loss by insects
examples of defoliaters?
Birch leaf miner
gypsy moth (invasive)
forest tent caterpillar
Eastern tent caterpillar
sawfly (major problem- kills trees)
examples of bark beetles?
Emerald ash borer!! Invading here!
example of sucking insects?
example of wood borer insect?
Asian long horned beetle
example of shoot feeder insect?
White Pine Weevil
(feed on terminal growth)
Root feeding insects?
Oak root borer
White grubs (june bugs)
IPM ...integrated pest management
A strategy to control pests based on an understanding of their biology that combine SILVICULTURAL, BIOLOGICAL & CHEMICAL treatments in proper sequence and timing to contribute to sustainable management goals for the forest.
(all but natural controls)
what settings are chemical controls more commonly used?
flat mushrooms that grow on trees (like the one on my stump)?
CODIT - compartmentalization of decay in trees
4 walls?
1- plug above and below (weakest)
2.growth ring interior to wound stops inward spread (2nd weakest)
3- ray cells (most effective at time of wounding)
4- new growth rings- MOST effective
examples of fungal diseases?
white pine blister rust
oak wilt
black knot
gall rust fungus
is a tree growth in which the grain has grown in a deformed manner. It is commonly found in the form of a rounded outgrowth on a tree trunk or branch that is filled with small knots from dormant buds. A burl results from a tree undergoing some form of stress. not microbial/fungal
allelopathic chemicals?
like the Mustard that kills the microrhizal fungi, and therefor kills other plants
wildfire definition
Any nonstructural fire, other than a prescribed fire, occurring on wild land
peak in US wildfires?
great depression (over 50 mill acres/yr)
2010- down to 3.2 million.
then used WWII Technology to fight fires
biggest cause of wildfires in US?
# of fires: ARSON , then debris burning
Acres burnt :lightning (out in the middle of the woods-->harder to get to), then arson
worst US fire ever?
Peshtigo WI
biggest causes of WI wildfires?
debris burning, then equipment fires
about 70% of wildfires occur in what 2 months?
April & May
3 vertices of fire triangle?
oxygen, fuel and heat
3 factor that influence fires
FUEL dry or moist, fine or heavy
WEATHER precip, humidity, wind temp
TOPOGRAPHY hills, valleys, aspect, elevation
name for fire in ground?
peat fire / ground fire
most common type of fire?
Surface fire
not crown fire
name for a fire ignited outside the perimeter of the main fire (by a fireband, spark, ember)?
can cause entrapment of fire fighters
Controlled/prescribed burn
-to reduce wildfire hazard, prep site for regeneration or help control disease or insects
required after prescribed burn....
MOP UP time
before a prescribed burn....
test burn
fire dependent tree species?
jack pine
Multiple use
Managing land for many simultaneous uses

- Application of the concept seeks the Application of the concept seeks the best best
combination combination of uses and coordinated of uses and coordinated
management management without impairment without impairment of the of the
productivity of the land, while meeting the
landowner’s present and future landowner’s present and future needs needs..
uses that may need to be managed simultaneously:
-- recreation recreation
-- watershed watershed protection protection
-- timber timber
-- minerals minerals
-- range range
-- aesthetics aesthetics
-- scientific investigation scientific investigation
-- historic preservation historic preservation
-- and and wildlife habita
define forest management
The use of forestry and other
relevant information to relevant information to plan plan and and
apply a program, based on the
concepts of sustainability, to best
meet the landowner’s desired
objectives objectives.
define management plan
A written plan written plan for the operation of a forest for the operation of a forest property using property using forestry principles forestry principles to provide to provide optimum optimum use of the available use of the available resources resources.

* only about %5 of forest owner have one, but 20% use professional assistance prior to a harvest
forest management plan should include:
-- Objectives and constraints
-- Maps
-- Managemen History
-- Silvicultural plan
-- Inventory data
-- Marketing
-- Financial records
-- Multiple use plan
-- Harvesting plan
-- Protection plan
define harvesting/ logging
process of process of cutting cutting and and hauling hauling
rough rough forest products from forest products from stump stump
to point of to point of processing processing.
An occupation that An occupation that cuts/fells cuts/fells trees trees
to be transported to a mill for
further processing into final
consumer products.
-- a logger is a logger is not a foreste
logging plan
-- Part of the overall management plan
-- Includes::
-- Inventory results Inventory results -- Is the stand ready to Is the stand ready to
-- Silvicultural Silvicultural system to be used system to be used
-- Location of harvest and map Location of harvest and map
-- Road system Road system
-- Markets Markets
-- Labor and equipment Labor and equipment
-- Sell Sell stumpage stumpage (standing trees to logger
year/ person who developed the 1st chainsaw?
Andreas Stihl -1926 (Germany)
Personal Protection Eqipment (t prevent injury from chainsaw kickback)
1. Hard Hat
2. Eye Protection
3. Hearing Protection
4. Chain Saw Chaps/Pants
5. Chain Saw Protective Footwear
6. Hand Protection
7. First Aid Ki
standing trees
Chainsaw fatalities and injuries are largely due to....
-- About 90 About 90% due to falling trees or % due to falling trees or
branches branches..
-- 85% due to 85% due to kickback kickback.
base cutting coonsiderations
cut 70-90 degree notch
leave flange of wood so gthat the tree falls predictably
cable yarding
uses zip line to transport lumber

hot air balloons and helicopters are also sometimes used
forest measurement
The The measurement measurement of forest of forest
1.1. Land Land Characteristics Characteristics
2. 2. Individual Tree Individual Tree Characteristics Characteristics
3. 3. Forest Stand Forest Stand Characteristics Characteristic
surveying (land)
-- The process of finding and The process of finding and
representing the contours,
measurements, and position
of a part of the earth’s surface
an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system.
in degrees
Bearing (3 parts)
1. N (north) or S (south)
2. 0 degrees
–– 90 degrees from due N or S
3. E (east) or W (west) of due north or
-- A technology that A technology that pinpoints a user’s location pinpoints a user’s location
anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day, regardless
of weather.
-- Designed by the Designed by the U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Department of Defense..
-- Consists of a constellation of Consists of a constellation of 24 satellites 24 satellites orbiting orbiting
some 12,000 miles above the earth.
-- Needs to acquire good signals from Needs to acquire good signals from at least 3 at least 3
satellites satellites to determine a position ( 4 for elevatio to determine a position ( 4 for elevation or n or
Metes and Bounds Syste
-- Used for the original thirteen colonies
and Texas.
-- Canuse physical features physical features in parcel
description ( ex. rocks, trees, rivers)
rectangular system
-- Began being used in 1785 (under Pres.Thomas Jefferson).
-- Uses a coordinate grid system to identify
each 6 mile by 6 mile townships over an over an
entire State.
-- Each State established axes for their grid Each State established axes for their grid
forest cover type map
-- Forest Forest stand information stand information
-- Examples: species, volume, basal area Examples: species, volume, basal area
-- Physical Physical features features
-- Examples: roads, fences, rivers Examples: roads, fences, river
map which shows land ownership?
plat book map
remote sensing maps
-- Aerial photographs Aerial photographs
-- Stereoscopic viewing Stereoscopic viewing
-- Thermal scanners Thermal scanners
-- Multi Multi--spectral scanner spectral scanner
-- Landsat Landsat Satellites Satellites
-- Radar Rada
used to view a map in 3D
soils map
-- Denotes areas of similar Denotes areas of similar soil types soil types..
-- Uses an aerial photo of the land as Uses an aerial photo of the land as
a a base map base map for soil type locations. for soil type locations
DBH measurement tools?
1. 1. Diameter Tape Diameter Tape -- units of 3.14159 inches units of 3.14159 inches
2. 2. Biltmore Stic
triangulates height,
to find merchantable height (tool)?
Use: Merritt Hypsometer
(in log and ½ log units
increment borer
used to measure age
CORD standard
a stack of round or split wood
containing 128 cubic feet
-- Standard dimensions: Standard dimensions:
4 feet X 4 feet X 8 feet
Face/Short/Fireplace/Stove Cord or Ric
-- For firewood (no third standard dimension) For firewood (no third standard dimension)
44 feet X feet X 88 feet X feet X length of piece length of piec
board foot
-- a unit for measuring wood a unit for measuring wood
volume equaling 144 cubic inches, which is
commonly used to measure and express the
amount of wood in a tree, amount of wood in a tree, sawlog sawlog, veneer log, , veneer log,
or individual piece of lumber.
-- Standard dimensions: Standard dimensions:
1 foot X 1 foot X 1 inch
To measure volume of a tree?
Measuring characteristics on a portion portion
of the area to estimate what is present
on the on the entire entire area. area
USDA Forest Service
Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA
Inventory includes::
-- 4.5 million remote sensing plots interpreted for land use
-- 125,000 permanent field plots systematically located
across all forest lands in the United States
-- 100 characteristics measured at each plot location
-- 1.5 million trees measured to evaluate volume,
condition, and vigor Wisconsin Forest Inventory (WDNR & USFS)::
-- Began 5--year annual inventory (some 5000 sample
plots) 2000.
--Previous inventories 1936, 1956, 1968, 1983, 1996, and
wildlife damage
mainly a problem due to over populations
controls: hunting, tree shelters (plastic trunk covers)
animals that damage forests (trees) examples:
gray squirrels
mice turkeys
advantages of managed pasture over woodlot?
31 X more protein
18 x more forage
woodlot: poisonous plants
soil erosion & compaction, eating branches and regeneration
Main machinery incolved in fire suppression
Dozer, plow rig

(they now have protective sprayer for operator
3 stages of wildfire suppression
wildfire prevention
burning permits
burning bans
spark arresters
closing areas from use
wildfire pre suppression
-ground patrol
-aerial detection
fixed point - fire towers (2 points use triangulation)
wildfire supression
fighting the fire