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162 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

1. Victim exposure can be categorized in terms of __________ and __________.

a. Lifestyle, situational

2. A timeline should outline the last known _____ hours of victim activity.


3. The propensity to assume that everything found in a crime scene or in relation to a crime must somehow be related is a common logical fallacy, referred to as __________.

a. Post hoc, ergo propter hoc

4. According to Von Hentig’s classification of victims, which of the following terms refers to a promiscuous person?

c. The wanton

5. A victim’s lifestyle exposure is related to the __________ of potentially harmful elements experienced by the victim and resulting from the victim’s usual environment and personal traits, as well as past choices.

b. Frequency

6. A victim’s situational exposure refers to the amount of actual exposure or vulnerability to harm resulting from the environment and the victim’s personal traits __________.

b. At the time of victimization

7. __________ victims are exposed to the possibility of suffering harm or loss less often than not (1- 3 days a week)

c. Medium-exposure

8. __________ victims are those who are exposed to little contact or vulnerability to harm or less immediately prior to victimization.

c. Low-exposure

9. Which of the following is an example of a vilified group?

all of the above

10. Which of the following careers is a notable lifestyle factor that increases a victim’s lifestyle exposure?


11. Which of the following is not a notable situational factor?

c. Care and supervision

12. Which of the following is not a goal of forensic victimology?

d. All of the above are goals of forensic victimology

13. Which of the following is not identified as a package that must be gathered and assessed by the criminal investigator?

c. Suspect package

14. Which of the following packages includes information regarding the victim’s home address, 911 calls, and the location/condition of their personal vehicle?

b. Residence package

15. Lifestyle factors can influence harm to the victim in which of the following ways?

d. All of the above

16. __________ refers to the deliberate act of imagining a behavior, event, or series of events that one finds personally arousing.

d. Sexual fantasy

17. There are approximately __________ open relationships in the United States.

d.4 million

18. Approximately _____% of Internet users are doing so to view porn.


19. __________ refers to a type of open relationship that allows both sex and love outside the relationship.

b. Polyamory

20. Sexual fantasies commonly involve which of the following themes?

d. All of the above

21. What are the 2 kinds of sexual arousal?

a. Subjective and genital

22. Which of the following stimuli can cause sexual arousal?

All of the above

23. What is the primary predictor of infidelity?

poor communication

24. Which of the following is a motive of exhibitionism?

d. All of the above

25. What motivates individuals to lie about their sexual habits?

d. All of the above

26. Which of the following is not one of the five features generally present in an S/M encounter?

d. Infliction of pain

27. Which of the following is true regarding fetishism?

d. Fetishists are often identified by association with other illegal sexual activity related to the fetishism or satisfying the fetish

28. Which of the following is an example of sexual coercion?

d. All of the above

29. What is the male-to-female ratio of those who engage in sexual asphyxia?


30. __________ refers to the use of special materials or devices that physically restrain the victim.

a. Bondage

31. Sexual asphyxia is the consensual or forced reduction of oxygen to the brain to enhance what type of pleasure?

c. All of the above

32. Which of the following may indicate that a death was not an expected outcome?

d. All of the above

33. To form an opinion that a death is the result of autoerotic asphyxia, the investigator would need to find evidence that the activity was __________ and likely pursued for sexual stimulation.

c. Repetitive

34. Autoerotic asphyxia can be mistaken for which of the following?

All of the above

35. Which of the following terms is synonymous with sexual asphyxia?

all of the above

36. What type of asphyxia presents the most obvious risk of death to the practitioners?

b. Autoerotic

37. Which of the following is not a death scene finding that is necessary to determine that a death is due to autoerotic asphyxia?

b. There is evidence of another actor

38. Why are news agencies and media groups hesitant to give detailed coverage on the subject of sexual asphyxia?

c. Certain individuals have a propensity to mimic what they see reported in the media

39. Which of the following is a repercussion resulting from errors in judgment regarding autoerotic sexual asphyxia?

All of the above

40. Which of the following results from hydrostatic pressure and may be evident during autopsy?


41. __________ refers to the false report, conveyance, or circulation of an alleged or impeding criminal offense.

false reporting

42. What is the most common motivation for false reporting a crime?

mitigation of responsability

43. According to research specific to the area of falsely reported rapes, what percentage of rapes are false reports?

a. 8%-41%

44. __________ refers to a lie communicated under oath about a material fact in a criminal matter.

c. Perjury

45. What type of lie is considered harmless, beneficial to those around us, and contributes to the greater good?

white lie

46. Which of the following is true regarding motivations of false reporters?

a. There is no bright yellow line between motivations

47. Which of the following is not discussed as a motive of a false report?

power reassurance

48. Which of the following is not an example of a mandated reporter?


49. Which of the following types of false reports is not discussed in this chapter?

d. All of the above are discussed

50. Which of the following is true regarding police agencies?

d. All of the above

51. Which of the following is true regarding the frequency of false report cases?

d. All of the above

52. During 2010, it was revealed that at least three individuals in Canada have faked which of the following?


53. A female student false reports victimization to gain better accommodations within her student apartment building. This is an example of what motivation?


54. An individual who has abstained from the use of drugs or alcohol for a period of time and suddenly relapses may claim that someone else forced them to inject drugs or alcohol against their will. This is an example of what motivation?

a. Concealment of illicit activities

55. A false reporter may stage an intimate or domestic homicide to look like a stranger burglary gone wrong or a kidnapping. This is an example of what motivation?

c. Crime concealment

56. Crime reconstruction is based on which of the following?

all of the above

57. To account for post-discovery influences, a record must be kept of the people, places, and processes that the evidence has endured since the time of its recognition at the scene. What is this record called?

chain of custody

58. What is the most important consideration in the reconstruction of crime?

b. Locard’s exchange principle

59. Offender actions at the scene that influence evidence include which of the following?

all of the above

60. Associated evidence is usually a form of trace evidence that can be __________ or __________ evidence.

a. Identification, ownership

61. Which of the following is an example of post-discovery dynamic influences?

d. Therapeutic injuries

62. Which of the following is not an example of limiting evidence?

crime scene tape

63. Which of the following is not an example of ownership evidence?


64. A deceased victim found without his wallet is an example of what type of evidence?


65. Gunshot wounds, bullet holes, and cartridge casings indicating that a firearm was discharged are examples of what type of evidence?


66. Trace evidence, such as hair, fibers, and glass, may be used to suggest an association between persons, objects, and locations. These are examples of what type of evidence?

b. Contact

67. A footprint over a tire track showing that an individual was present subsequent to the vehicle’s passing is an example of what type of evidence?


68. Footprints that indicate direction of travel are examples of what type of evidence?


69. Crime scene characteristics are established from a thorough examination of which of the following?

all of the above

70. What form of evidence may allow the criminal profiler to provide an opinion as to whether multiple offenders were involved in the commission of a crime?

all of the above

71. A crime scene exposed to the elements of nature is an example of what type of crime scene?


72. The location where a body is found can be described as which of the following?

all of the above

73. An opportunistic victim can be chosen due to which of the following?

all of the above

74. What personal item taken from the victim represents a symbol of victory, achievement, or consequent?


75. Which type of force is generally the result of cumulative rage?


76. What is considered one of the most important considerations of crime scene investigation, reconstruction, and analysis?

d. Determining what type of crime scene we are presented with

77. Which of the following is not an example of a precautionary act?

d. All of the above are examples of precautionary acts

78. A blitz attack follows what method of approach?

any approach

79. Impersonating a police officer, or some other form of authority figure, is an example of what method of approach?


80. A sniper killing a victim with a single shot is an example of what type of force?


81. Kicking a victim for refusing to get up is an example of what type of force?


82. Chopping off a victim’s hands and head to obscure investigative efforts at identification is an example of what type of force?


83. A victim who refuses to comply with offender commands or the refusal to eat or drink in captivity is an example of what type of victim resistance?


84. The behavioral motivational typology is useful for classifying what type of criminal behavior?

all of the above

85. __________ refers to the end aim that guides behavior.


86. The main goal of ___________ behavior is to service the offender’s cumulative aggression.

b. Anger retaliatory

87. Cumulative rage is evidenced by what behavior?


88. Administrative crime scene behaviors can be broken down into what 2 categories?

a. Profit-oriented and goal-directed

89. What type of crime scene behavior is engaged in for a specific functional purpose?


90. What motivation is also referred to as entitlement?

power assertive

91. An administrative motivation includes behaviors that service what type of gain?

all of the above

92. Which of the following is not an example of a contributing motivational factor?

d. All of the above may be considered contributing motivational factors

93. Which of the following is not an advantage of determining the motivation behind a crime?

d. All of the above are advantages of determining motive

94. What motivation does not reflect emotional or psychological needs of the offender?


95. Which of the following is not a motive of sexual assault?


96. Which of the following must be present in a sadistically motivated crime?

b. A conscious victim who is able to respond to the injuries inflicted by the offender

The belief/rationalization that the offense is consensual or that the victim is somehow a willing or culpable participant is an example of what motivation?

power reassurance

An offender who contacts a victim after an attack evidences what motivation?

power reassurance

100. Case linkage involves establishing and comparing which of the following?

all of the above

With respect to behavioral evidence, case linkage efforts have typically hinged on what two concepts?

MO and signature

102. Offender signature refers to the pattern or cluster of which of the following?

all of the above

103. Which of the following is true regarding signature behavior?

all of the above

104. What principle of behavioral evidence analysis states that different offenders do similar things for different reasons?

b. The principle of behavioral variance

105. A(n) __________ refers to any unplanned influence that can affect crime scene behavior during an offense. a. Interrupted offense


106. What type of analysis is conducted during an ongoing investigation while facts are still being established?


107. Which of the following is not a purpose of MO behaviors.

c. Fulfilling a psychological need of the offender

108. Which of the following is not considered an MO behavior?

d. The failure to use a condom during an offense

109. Which of the following is not an example of an X-factor?

d. All of the above are examples of X-factors

110. Which of the following is an example of a destabilizing MO factor.

d. Use of controlled substances

111. Which of the following is true regarding offender signature?

d. It always involves an expression of fantasy

112. Which of the following is an example of a passive signature behavior?


113. Two convenience robberies occur in broad daylight. Both involve a .357-magnum handgun and both involve an offender wearing a mask. This evidences what type of behavioral linkage?

behavioral commonality

114. Two women murdered in their homes, in generally the same fashion, in the same community, over the course of a year. This evidences what type of

an investigative link

In the 1960s the psychoanalyst Bruno Bettelheim hypothesized that autistic children were produced by mothers who were not competent to bond emotionally with their children. He called these mothers

refrigerator moms

2. This person was considered by many to be the “father of forensic psychology”.

Hugo Münsterberg

3. The topic of the book “The Courage to Heal” was

a. repressed memories of alleged incest

4. The mental process by which distressing thoughts, memories, or impulses are excluded from consciousness and left to operate in the unconscious is called


5. An abnormal integration of thoughts, feelings, and experiences into consciousness so that traumatic memories are split off from conscious awareness is called


6. The case of the _______________ is an example of what can happen when false memories, over-zealous experts, and a fad-desensitized media come together

McMartin school

8. One judge referred to this as “spectral evidence.”

"recovered" memories

. In 1978 Dan White shot and killed Harvey Milk and San Francisco mayor George Moscone. White’s defense team claimed that his poor diet contributed to his manic-depressive illness, and that his manic-depressive illness contributed to his homicidal actions. This became known as the _______________ defense.


10. A set of symptoms and signs that occur in a regular pattern from patient to patient, and that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, psychological disorder, or other abnormal condition, is known as a


11. The phenomenon of hostages forming an identification with, and bonding to their captors is called the

stockholm syndrome

12. The precursor to the battered woman syndrome was the research done on

learned helplessness

13. The original proponent of the battered women syndrome

lenore walker

14. According to the battered woman syndrome, the three phases of a battering cycle in their correct order, are

b. tension building

16. According to the battered woman syndrome, this phase is characterized by unusual calm and attempts to make up for abusive behavior

Contrite and loving

17. According to the battered woman syndrome, this phase is characterized by the victim’s leaving the relationship temporarily

none of the above

18. Criticisms of the research underlying the battered woman syndrome include all of the following except

c. failure to interview the victims of battered women syndrome

19. The original research on the rape trauma syndrome (RTS) was conducted using _______________ as subjects

d. women presenting at a Boston hospital emergency room during a one year period

20. In a trial for rape, evidence of RTS is usually introduced to put the _______________ actions into context


21. The original research on rape trauma syndrome has been criticized for all of the following reasons except

none of the above

A ninety-year-old man looses consciousness due to a blocked blood vessel in his brain. As a result, he looses control of his car and hits someone. His best defense is likely to be

a or c (lack of mens rea/automatism )

23. Sleep-walking is the classic example of


24. An intense form of anxiety, tension, and rage, experienced by an individual with latent homosexual tendencies, is better known as

a or b (gay/homosexual panic)

25. People v. Ferguson (1998) is a famous example of the _______________ in action

black rage defense

26. A person is provoked, but unwilling or unable to retaliate against the original provocateur, and later aggresses against a seemingly innocent target. This is likely an example of

displaced aggression

This type of terrorist seek the complete abolition of a political system and its replacement with new structures


The Italian Red Brigades, the German Red Army Faction, and the Irish Republican Army, are examples of this type of terrorist group


3. This type of terrorism is environmentally-oriented and uses violence aimed at an audience


4. The Phineas Priesthood, Montana Freemen, The Order, and the Arizona Patriots, are all examples of extremist groups known as

Christian identity

5. The _______________ is a racist, anti-Semitic movement with a commitment to use violence to achieve its goals of racial segregation and white supremacy

ku klux klan

This black nationalism group was formed by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California, in 1966

black panther party

7. In 1995, this Japanese doomsday cult released nerve gas into a Tokyo subway

a. AUM Shinrikyo

“The unlawful attack or threat of attack against computers, computer networks, or information stored on computers, with the intent to intimidate or coerce in order to achieve political or social objectives” is called


This word, meaning literally "hashish-eater,” comes from Muslim a sect who, between 1090 and 1272 CE, fought the Christian crusaders attempting to conquer present-day Syria and Iran.


10. Some theorists hold that terrorism is a form of _______________ or an intense overreaction to not being able to acquire or maintain power or control by intimidation, thus resulting in shame

narcissistic rage

11. The psychological literature suggests that many terrorists suffer from

NONE of the above

12. The psychological literature suggests that the personality disorder terrorists are most likely to exhibit, if at all, is

c. antisocial personality disorder

13. Individuals with a damaged self-concept may utilize the primitive defense of __________ to blame an outside enemy for their own inadequacies and weaknesses

d. either b or c

( b. splitting/ c. externalization)

“Dichotomous thinking” is where

a. people are seen as either totally good or totally bad

15. The People’s Temple is associated with which religious cult leader?

Jim Jones

16. Beck (2002) regards many terrorists as becoming so engaged in their mission that their thinking and actions focus exclusively on the destruction of the target. He terms this

Tunnel Vision

17. The process the process whereby terrorist recruits give up all their former ties and affiliations is called

c. depluralization

18. The process by which people feel less culpable when, either in the presence of, or on behalf of a group, they engage in harmful or even heinous behavior, is called

diffusion of responsibility

19. The process by which terror group members are asked to take on a new personal identity both internally (such as values and beliefs) and externally (such as manner of dress), is called

d. self-deindividuation

20. The social psychological conditioning process whereby group members become convinced that the enemy is in league with the devil or represent some kind of cosmic evil, is called


21. In Milgram’s 1963 study of obedience, how many subjects continued to the highest shock level despite the cries of the victim?


22. An aversion to differences in people, a desire for conformity to prevailing social norms and authority, strict morality, political and social intolerance, an aversion to ambiguity, and a desire for clear and unambiguous authority, are all part of the _______________ personality

b. authoritarian

23. Flashbacks, nightmares, loss of emotions, detachment, difficulty sleeping, and feeling irritable and on edge, are all symptoms of

a. posttraumatic stress disorder

24. This type of therapy helps patients identify their trauma-related negative beliefs and to change them to reduce distress

d. cognitive-behavioral therapy

25. This type of therapy uses a combination of imagined “reliving” of traumatic events, and “in vivo” confrontation of traumatic triggers in the outside world

exposure therapy