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151 Cards in this Set

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Forensic

Incorrectly associated w/ "homicide".


Forensic Psychology

Sub-discipline of almost any field.

Forensics in the field of Psychology

Unsure

Forensics in Psychology disciplines (e.g...clinical,social)

Unsure

Clinical Psyc

Unsure

Non-Clinical Psyc

Unsure

Difference between Clinical Psyc & Non-Clinical Psyc

Unsure

Forensic

"Forum"


Public part of ancient Roman city-states which served as the center for public, especially judicial business.

Forensic

Contemporary use of the term Forensic


- Formalized debate between competing parties.


Describes the adversarial process that characterizes our judicial system.

Forensic

Means "debate"

Forensic Psyc

It not its own separate discipline, similar to social, clinical, or cognitive psychology.

Forensic Psyc

Sub Disciplines:


Clinical/Counseling, Social, Developmental, Cognitive, Community, Industrial/Organizational

Forensic Psyc

Usually thought of as Clinical Psyc & Law

...is the scientific study of pathological behavior, cognitive, and/or affect for the purpose of settling legal disputes

Forensic Psyc

Forensic Psyc

Specialty training leading to acceptable use of te term "forensic psychologist" will be primarily clinical in nature

What do Forensic Psychologists do?

Research, Applied work

Research

Assessment

Research

Treatment

Assessment

Risk, Competence, Responsibility/Malingering

Treatment

Substance, Abuse/Dependance, Sexual Offender, Anger Management

Applied Work

Assessment & Treatment Services


Expert Testimony


Consultation


Systems/Policy Research

Expert Testimony

Individual Evaluations (clinical)


Criminal or Civil


"Content" Experts (non-clinical)

Consultations

Juries

Problem-solving courts

Drug courts, mental health courts, juvenile courts

AP-LS

American Psychology Law Society (1968)



Group of ppl who could communicate with each other for the first time.

Nomothetic Laws

Apply in general to a group/class.


Nomothetic Laws

Ex) Behavior that is reinforced is more likely to occur.


What Law is this?

Idiographic Application

Apply to a specific member of a class.


Probabilistic nature of social sciences.

Forensic Evalutations

Court-Appointed. Retained by Prosecution/Defense/Plaintiff

Civil/Criminal Inquiries

Competency. Mental State at Time of Offense. Emotional/Cognitive Damages. Future Dangerousness.

Civil/Criminal Inquiries

Child Welfare(custody). Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability. Malingering. Treatment Amenability.

Trial Consultation

Jury selection. Community attitudes. Witness preparation. Presentation strategies.

Trial Consultation

Cross Examination Assistance. Recommend empirical findings. Mock trials.

Adversarial System

Gets the truth through open competition of prosecution & defense both arguing their sides of the case

Inquisitorial System

Gets the truth through extensive investigation and examination of evidence.

Adversarial System PROS

- The Judge cannot comment until both sides are heard.



- This makes the Judge appear less biased in the case lessening the chance for public protest of verdict


Adversarial System CONS

- The discovery with evidence rests with two lawyers working for each for one party. I think the role of the lawyer is expressly active in this type of system. Good lawyer = better chances to win the case.
- If a jury is involved the verdict may be swayed by the most compelling arguments rather than evidence or proof.

Inquisitorial System PROS

- The decision rests in the hands of an expert in the area of the crime. There is no chance of public being swayed by fancy arguments


Inquisitorial System CONS

- The judgement rests on one person, therefore the question of bias is never completely clear.

Civil Law

Mainly business issues, non-criminal acts. Money disputes.

Criminal Law

Violations of the criminal law, non-civil issue.

State Courts

Handle a majority of the cases

Federal Courts

Will get a case if the defendant appeals the judicial verdict. Is more concerned with federal laws...bringing drugs across the boarder. Things that break the federal law.

Appellate Courts

Will determine if the trial or lower court correctly applied the law. The highest form of an appellate court in the United States is the United States Supreme Court which hears only appeals of major importance and consequence.

Supreme Courts

- Hear only appeals of major importance and consequence.


- The final judge in all cases involving laws of Congress, and the highest law of all — the Constitution. The Supreme Court, however, is far from all-powerful. Its power is limited by the other two branches of government. The President nominates justices to the court.

Supreme Court hears...

* 2/3 are cases appealed from lower federal courts
* 1/3 are cases appealed from state supreme courts
* Rarely, they hear cases that have not been previously heard by a lower court, such as between one state's government and another.

Appellate Courts hear...

Cases on appeal from another court.

What kind of court system does the US have?

Adversarial system.


- Both sides get to call their "expert" witnesses.


Adversarial system

Attempts to discredit, embarrass, confuse.



"Objection. Counsel is mocking the witness."

Science

Logical. Non-Circular Reasoning. Objective/Reliable. Falsifiable. Replicable. This is ______.

Problem-solving courts

Drug courts. Mental health courts. Juvenile courts.

Hadfield case

"Wild beast" defense. You don't have to look insane to be insane.

McNaughten case

1843. Attempted to kill a senator, killed his secretary instead. Resulted in the modification of early "insanity" plea.

Criminal Lunacy Act

1800. You can hold the defendant until the state decides they are OK to be released.

When was there an increase in the Forensics field?

1960s-1970s

Milestones in the field of Forensic Psyc.

National Science Foundation funding. American Psychology-Law Society (1968).

American Psychology-Law Society was founded in what year?

1968

Milestones in the Forensic Psyc field

Law & Human Behavior (book). Psychology, Public Policy, & Law (book).

The book Law & Human Behavior was published in what year?

1971

The book Psychology, Public Policy, & Law was published in what year?

1995

Hugo Munsterberg

Wrote "On the Witness Stand". Response was very negative. Psychological methods were a useful, neglected tool that could inform legal decision-making.


- Irreparable damage to collaborative efforts?

Sigmund Freud

Word association technique. Objective signs.

James Grigson

Barefoot v. Estelle (1983) "Antisocial personality of the severest type...100% and absolute chance he will kill again..."



Killer shrink.

Margaret Hagen

Whores of the Court. "There is simply no mental stethoscope".

Margaret Hagen

"What we've got now are thousands of self-styled soul doctors run amok in our courts, drunk with power, bedazzled by spectacular fees for the non-heavy-lifting job of shooting off their mouths about any psychological topic that sneaks a toe into the courtroom."

Muller v. Oregon

1908. Social science briefs influenced decision. 1st legal brief that contained up-to-date social science research.

Sigmund Freud

Psychoanalysis. Word association technique may improve upon current interviewing procedures (1906). " Cat...dog" "Pencil...pen" "Mother...murder".



Sigmund Freud

"...to compel the accused person to establish his own guilt or innocence by objective signs."

What year was the McNaughten case?

1843

Brown v. Board of Education

1954. Use of social science data as social authority. 1st psychology "attack" on state's actions. Social science data authority in order to create change in a legal rule.

Barefoot v. Estelle

1983. James Grigson. "100% certain he will kill again."

Lockhart v. McCree

1986. 8 prospective jurors removed during voir dire based on personal objections to the death penalty.


What did APA say in Lockhart v. McCree?

Unrepresentative, improperly functioning juries with underrepresentation of minorities and females.

What did the Supreme Court say in Lockhart v. McCree?

The Constitution does not prohibit states from using death-qualified juries. They dismissed it.

People in mid-range where they could say death penalty or life without parole.

Death qualified jurors

McCleskey v. Kemp

1986. Racial disparities in application of death penalty. If you kill a white victim, you're 4.3x more likely to get the death penalty than if the victim is black. Supreme Court dismissed it.

What was the Supreme Court's ruling in McCleskey v. Kemp?

They dismissed it because it was "inevitable" and ruled that results were insufficient to show evidence of deliberate bias in the present case.

Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals

1993. Evidence of a link between Bendectin and birth defects. Tested it on animals, animals offspring had birth defects too along with the human offspring that had taken the medicine.


The Daubert standard overturned the Frye standard.


Frye Standard

1923. "General acceptance in the field to which it belongs".

What was the ruling in Daubert v. Dow Pharmaceuticals?

Judge serves as the "gatekeeper".

Creative. Empirical. Experimental. Descriptive. Probabilistic. One Reality. Theory-Driven.

Psychology

Authoritative. Adversarial. Prescriptive. Case Specific. Absolute/Certain. Contrasting Realities. Attentive to social science data?

Law

Why are expert witnesses useful to jury members?

Possess relevant and specialized knowledge, skill, or experience that jurors are not likely familiar with. Without them, inaccurate resolution of sanity issues is extremely high.

What job position is this?


-Doctoral level degree. Clinical or counseling psychologist. Caucasian. Male. Work full-time for the prison systems. Provide services to a broad range of offenders, minus sex offenders.

Correctional Psychologist

Direct Treatment (25%)


Individual therapy. 750:1 Inmate/Psychologist Ratio. Cognitive or Cognitive-Behavior Orientation.

Services provided by correctional psychologist that inmates seek treatment for:

Mental Illness recovery. Anger management. Institutional adjustment. Personal growth. Risks/Criminogenic needs. Substance abuse.

Administrative duties (30%)


Direct Treatment (25%)


Assessment/Eval (20%)


Research (5%)

Correctional psychologist

What does a correctional psychologist do the most?

Administrative duties

What does a correctional psychologist do the least?

Research

Forensic Assessment Instruments

FAIs. Directly relevant to a Specific Legal Standard. Insanity/Competency Measures.

Forensic Relevant Instruments

FRIs. Focus on Clinical Issues rather than legal definitions. HCR-20, PCL-R.

Non-Circular Reasoning

Descriptions are NOT explanations

Objective/Reliable

Data are not strongly influenced by subjective evaluations or biases

Falsifiable

Ideas are able to be tested and refuted

Replicable

Other studies produce similar results given similar methods of experimentation

Quantitative measure of the degree of association between 2 variables.

Correlational Method

Correlational Method: Operationalization

Defining an abstract concept through objective measures.


Correlational Coefficients (+and-)


Significance Testing.

Experimental Method

Causality requires a controlled investigation in which we examine the effect of one or more Independent variables on a Dependent variable.


Experimental group. Control group.

Experimental Method

Randomly Assign Participants


- Eliminate alternative explanations


- Distribute individual differences

Random Assignment

Experimental method. Give different groups different conditions. It's about your manipulation.


- Internal Validity.

Random Sampling

Whether you can generalize about a group/population.


- External Validity.

Quasi-Experimental Method

Randomly assigns patients to a "no treatment" condition that would severly impact health.


Disadvantage: Can't be certain that differences are because of your manipulation.

Quasi-Experimental Method

Confound can be managed by using "matched" control groups: age, gender, geographic location, SES, intelligence.

4 potential roles of expert witnesses according to Saks (1990)?

- Conduit/Educator


- The Advocate


-Hired Gun


- 4th Cell

Conduit/Educator

Bias free. Neutral expert who is disinterested in who "wins".

The Advocate

Expert has a theoretical, political or personal investment in the issue at hand

Hired Gun

Expert's opinion is determined by which side is willing to pay him or her. "Up For Sale".

The 4th Cell

The Conduit-Advocate. The data are so clear the expert can objectively advocate for a given position/outcome.

Daubert Standard

1. Falsifiability


2. Peer Review


3. Reliability


4. Acceptance

What is the main focus of police evaluations?

Eliminate candidates least suited for police work.

Characteristics looked for in Police Evals.

Well-Adjusted. Emotionally Stable. Disciplined. Respectful of Authority. Motivated. Trustworthy. Communicative. Rational.

How are police applicants evaluated?

Structured interviews, situational tests, psychological tests.

What type of validity describes the extent to which scores correlate with performance?

Predictive validity

The extent to which as assessment score predicts or correlates with criterion measure (performance ratings).

Predictive Validity

How has the PAI been used to evaluate candidates?

Antisocial Scale and Subscales:


- Antisocial Behaviors (ANTA)


- Egocentricity (ANTE)


- Stimulus Seeking (ANTS)

Hostage Situations

- Mentally disturbed hostage taker


- Trapped during crime


- Inmates, capturing guards, capturing other inmates


- Terrorists

Non-Hostage Situations

- Barricaded, with or without victims.


(not a hostage until ransom is given)


- Suicidal motivation


- Emotional motivation


- Victims-to-be, kidnapping, hi-jacking

How would you best establish empathy?

Perspective-Taking vs. Relating

How would you best establish rapport?

Nonjudgemental communication

When is Stockholm Syndrome likely to occur?

In a hostage situation by someone taken hostage. Only 8% of people have reported doing this in a hostage situation. It is one's reaction to trauma, mistaking the lack of abuse from their captor as an act of kindness.

What are common stressors of police officers?

- Exposure to critical incidents (traumatic crime scenes, physical threat, psychological threat). Workplace discrimination. Lack of cooperation and support among coworkers. Job dissatisfaction. Negative evaluation by the press and public.

What is Burnout?

When a police officer is not happy with their job anymore. "Glass ceiling".

How is burnout most likely to impact home life?

They can become detached from the family, turn to alcohol or substance abuse. Become physically abusive.

Why might the possible strategies for decreasing burnout be effective?

Appreciation, Flexibility, Team policing, stress management programs, in-house or outside psychological services.

What causes burnout?

Lack of:


1. Rewards (especially positive feedback)


2. Control over job demands


3. Clear job expectations


4. Support from supervisors


- Establishing communication


- Gathering intelligence


- Buying time


- Developing rapport


- Defusing intense emotions


- Increasing rationality


These are goals of:

Crisis Intervention

Purpose of Criminal Profiling

Attempt to use what is known about how a crime was committed to infer what the of person might have committed it.

What information might be in a Criminal Profile?

Age. Gender. Race. Marital status. Employment. Criminal history.

What does a Criminal profile NOT do?

Identify a SPECIFIC suspect.

According to the Pinizzoto & Finkel (1990) study, is profiling more accurate?

Yes/No.


Yes: They were more accurate on some.


No: They were less accurate on some.

Gary Ridgeway, what the profile got wrong:

Average or slightly higher intelligence. Low self-esteem. Large man in good physical condition. Raised by a single parent. Is unemployed or chronically underemployed; Job requires more strength than skill. Is not very neat or meticulous.

Gary Ridgeway's real profile

Poor grades. Low IQ. Troubled childhood (domestic abuse between parents). Stabbed a kid at age 16. Killed prostitutes, drug addicts, and runaways in Washington. M.O. = Strangulation. Dumped bodies in clusters and revisisted sites to engage in necrophilia. Convicted of killing 49+ victims.

Gary Ridgeway's letters

Contained several misspellings. Signed them "callmefred" and said "what you eedtoknowaboutthegreenriverkiller". FBI didn't think he wrote the letters because they thought the unsub was more intelligent than that.

4 Crime Phases

1. Antecedent


2. Method and Manner


3. Body Disposal


4. Post offense Behavior

Antecedent

What fantasy or plan, or both, did the murderer have in place before the act? What triggered the murderer to act some days and not others?

Method and Manner

What type of victim or victims did the murderer select? What was the method and manner of murder; shooting, stabbing, etc.

Body disposal

Did the murder and body disposal take place all at one scene, or multiple scenes?

Post offense behavior

Is the murderer trying to inject himself into the investigation by reacting to media reports or contacting investigators?

Modus Operandi

Method of Procedure. A dynamic, malleable, learned behavior.

Signature

A ritualistic "calling card" enacted for psychological gratification, not needed to accomplish the crime. Often points to the motivation.

Staging

Red flags of staging include inconsistencies in the crime scene...entry, placement of body, weapon. ***Can be done by an offender or by the person who finds the crime scene***

NCAVC

Case consultation. Direct support to FBI crisis negotiators.

B.A.U. 1

Counterterrorism, arson, bombing

B.A.U. 2

Threats, cyber and white collar crime

B.A.U. 3

Crimes against children

B.A.U. 4

Crimes against adults

How is ViCAP used?

Helpful for crimes that happen across different states. Behavior. M.O. Evidence.

How is CODIS used?

DNA. Match it to a person/crime scene.

What are the problems with profiling?

"Gut feelings" over empirical data. Predictions can be quickly accepted as "accurate descriptions". Even a wrong prediction can divert the investigation away from the true criminal. CANNOT predict all behaviors or definitely determine causality.

Profiling does not:

Transfer to other cultures.

Profiling Interviewing Techniques

1. Rapport Building


2. Concealed Knowledge Test


3. Cognitive Load Interviews



- Must always be cautious of false confessions.