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103 Cards in this Set

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Domestic Violence prevalence

difficult to determine because its interpersonal.

What does DV include

Psychological;Physical Violence; Sexual aggression

Who perperates DV more?

Equal male and female

What is the DV rate

no concensus

How many people were killed by DV in one year?

1200 women; 440 men

Psychological consequences of DV

depression; low self esteem; PTSD; stress

Reduced self esteem is related to

physical and psychological abuse

Violent partners who seek treatment are

???

Risk factors for DV

age; SES; race/ethnicty (african american;hispanic/latino;non-whites); marriage dissatisfaction; witnessing child abuse; being drunk or high; poor communication; lifetime events (i.e.pregnancy); a gun; breakup

Psychological characteristics related to DV perpertrators

anger; substance abuse; borderline personality; self-defeating characteristics

When using booze/drugs when does DV happen?

Immediately prior or during DV; risk 8 times higher on days of substance abuse

Treatment for DV

Duluth Model; CBT

What is the Duluth model

confrontational challenge to the perp

Community interventions for DV

Safehouse; Shelter; Advocacy programs

What is Safe house?

Unpublicized location for temporary shelter

Criminal Justice interventions for DV

mandatory arrests; protective and restraining orders

Battered women are __ times more likely to commit suicide

8
DV Prevalence
Difficult to determine, it can mean any violence or aggression in the context of a interpersonal relationship
DV Includes
Psychological violence,Physical violence, Sexual aggression
Men and women perpetrate
similar rates of domestic violence
DV rate
there is no clear consensus, According to crime reports over 1200 women and 440 men were killed by an intimate partner in one year
Prominent psychological consequences of DV include
Physical injuries, Psychological abuse has more severe long term effects than physical abuse, depression, low SE, PTSD
Psychological abuse occurs
Normally occurs before physical abuse
Violent partners who seek treatment are
problematic
Risk factors for the perpetration of DV
Age Inverse relationship to perpetration of DV; SES Inverse relationship to perpetration of DV, Race/Ethnicity
Higher rates of DV
African American, Hispanic/Latino, Non whites, Marital dissatisfaction, Witnessing childhood abuse
Intergenerational transmission of violence suggest that
individual exposed to DV as a child are more likely to perpetrate it at adulthood
Risk for DV increases with
the immediate use of alcohol and drugs, Poor communication pattern, Lifetime events, During pregnancy, When there is the presence of a handgun, When ending the relationship
Psychological characteristics related to DV perpetration
anger or hostility, Substance abuse, borderline personality, self defeating characteristics
Chronic substance abuse and use
immediately prior to or during DV episode, Risk is 8 times higher on the days of substance use
Borderline personality characteristics for DV
Heightened levels of depression, Suicidal ideas, Suicidal behaviors

Treatment of DV

Duluth Model, CBT

Duluth Model
The cause of DV is the continued subjugation of women by men and DV is just another way to control women, Treatment is based around confrontational challenges to perpetrator
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Based on ineffective thought processes that lead to anger and violence
Community Interventions include
Safe house, shelter, advocacy programs, CJ interventions
Safehouse
Unpublicized location for temporary shelter
Shelter
More permanent than safehouse
Advocacy programs
An advocate who assists the victim
Criminal Justice Interventions
Mandatory arrests, protective orders and restraining orders
Adolescents are not
adults and are not afforded all the rights of adults
The focus for juveniles is
interventions
Any child under age 7 is
not responsible
Many believe that ages ____lack the ability to form mens rea
7 to 14
The focus of the juvenile justice system has historically been on
the rehabilitation of children and adolescents

Kent v US

Kent v US-Children have a right to a formal hearing before having their cases transferred to adult criminal court, and the formal hearing “must measure up to the essentials of due process and fair treatment.” Essential stated that children receive the worst of both worlds, not being allowed due process like adults and not being allowed the treatment that children are supposed to get. This case recognized the right for juveniles to have the assistance of counsel if they faced criminal charges.

Supreme Court concerned that youth did not
receive due process and required counsel be afforded to youth when there were criminal charges
In re Gault, 1967, the Supreme Court held that
juveniles should be given due process rights and be advised of their right to counsel.
Status offenses are offenses that could only be committed by someone who was
not yet an adult; Truancy, Running away from home
In the 80s and 90s all states moved away from the rehabilitation model to
a punitive model
Punitive model
Age ranges for transfer cases was increased , Kids as young as 12 can now be transferred to adult court,
Previously the case expired when the adolescent became
‘adult age.’ Now they are transferred to adult facilities when they turn of age to serve longer sentences
Juvenile delinquency issued to describe behavior that is
a violation of criminal law by an offender who is not yet an adult
Less than ___ of youths have ever been arrested
6%
Less than ____of those have committed violent crimes
10% of youths
Dramatic increase in juvenile crime is from
girls
Currently ____of caseload is for girls, compared to ____ in 1985
28%, 19%
Risk Factors for juvenile delinquency
Substance abuse, Mental Health Concerns, Academic difficulty, Learning disabilities, Male gender, Offense history, Low socioeconomic status
Race is
not a significant predictor once SES is controlled for, Family instability

The more of these protective factors, the less likely to recidivate

Intelligence, Personality traits, Positive temperament

_____is the leading cause of death among Hispanic and African American adolescent males-

Homocide

Crime rates for violent crimes is the lowest in
30 years except for the female population
There has been over an ____ increase in female juvenile crime
80%
Juveniles who perpetrate violence commit ____non violent crimes than violent crimes
more

Sexual Violence stats for juveniles

About 19% of rapes are committed by male perpetrators under the age of 19, About 1/3 of child molesters are juveniles, About 7% of juvenile sexual offenses are committed by girls

The Role of the Forensic Psychologist in Juvenile Courts

treat, evaluate: transfer evals, competency evals

The number of treatment programs has
increased tremendously in the last 20 years
The best programs reduce reoffense rates by
40%
Multisystemic therapy
focus is understanding problems across different systems (peers, family, school, society)
Multimodal intervention
focus matching needs with treatment
Cognitive-behavioral treatments are used in
treating juveniles
Evaluate juveniles for
treatment amenability, ie Does the juvenile appear willing and able to benefit from treatment?
Conducting transfer evaluations
Transfer when the juvenile court believes a juvenile poses a long-term threat to society, Risk for reoffending in the future, Maturity, Amenability to treatment
Competency Evaluation are done because
many juvenile offenders are not competent to stand trial
Insanity Evaluation are not
not standardized to youth
Violence risk or threat assessment
assess if a juvenile poses a threat to act in the future

The public perception that school shootings are a nationwide epidemic can most likely be attributed

to sensationalistic coverage by the national news media

The focus of empirically tested guidelines for school shootings suggests that
the focus be on managing problems to prevent violence is the most important aspect.
School Shootings Threat assessment
useful because most school shooters tell someone of their plan
Courts are more or less likely to adopt the opinions of forensic psychologists than in other areas of forensic practice.
less
Courts generally consider psychological evaluations more or less critical in child custody cases
less

Court decision is similar tochild custody evaluation

27% of the time, and similar in other types of cases 64% of the time

Tender-years doctrine (through the 1970s)
The natural custodian of a child of tender years was almost always the mother, Children were considered to be chattel – personal property
Best interest of the child (current standard)
Custody is based on the development and continued maturation of the child, judges lack training to make these determinations properly., Most child custody experts prefer that they don’t represent one side, and that both parents retain them
Any negative impact of divorce on children is likely because of
the level of conflict and poor relationship between parents.
Research suggests that children in joint custody were better adjusted than
those in sole custody
The Sleeper Effect
seemingly normal adjustment though childhood following the divorce of a child’s parents but is then followed by an adulthood with heightened levels of anxiety and betrayal.
Surveys of forensic experts reveal that
they rate absence of domestic violence as the most important criteria for determining child custody.
The _____is the most frequently administered test to parents, as a part of child-custody evaluation
MMPI-2
There is no universally accepted best practice standard for conducting an evaluation
true
The framework for civil law is contained in
the legal concept of torts or tort law

o A branch of law concerned with wrongs against individuals

Torts

Four elements that constitute a tort
Duty or obligation, violation of duty, damages, proximate cause, Violation of that duty entails, Negligence (a person fails to act in a reasonable manner to avoid violation of a duty-does not involve determining intent), Intentional torts (intent is the issue and not the outcome of the behavior, Assault and battery are examples of an intentional tort), Strict liability (It is not important to prove the conduct was wrong but only that someone was doing something dangerous)

Types of damages

Compensatory and punitive

The violation must be the proximate cause of the damages


.Proximate cause is the term for

the primary, immediate, or substantial cause of the damage

Three most prominent Personal Injury Cases
PTSD, neuropsych damage, chronic pain
PTSD/ Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is the only mental illness that requires
a specific triggering event for the disorder to be diagnosed.
Neuropsychological damage
The severity of traumatic brain injury is usually assessed by all of the following, except the severity of the blow to the head.; The severity of a traumatic brain injury is normally most associated with the length of time the person is unconscious.; The fixed battery necessitates that the examiner administer a standardized set of neuropsychological tests in an identical manner to get a comprehensive picture; In the flexible process approach, the examiner is selective about the specific tasks he asks of the examinee and usually selects tests that only assess only those areas for which the symptoms suggest possible impairment.
Chronic Pain is
Difficult to determine (ie Personality differences, Determining cause, Malingering)
Types of disabilities
factual, social, legal
Factual disability
An illness or injury that prevents a person from carrying out their job or any job.

Is covered by disability in insurance contracts.

Social disability
Example is that a physician may contract a communicable disease that prevents him from performing as a surgeonIs not covered by disability in insurance contracts
Legal disability
Someone who is unable to work because of a license revocation or suspension

Compensatory damages vs. Punitive damages

Compensatory damages are awarded in order restore the plaintiff to a previous condition., Punitive damages are intended to punish the defendant for his behavior