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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Name the different types of carbohydrates

Sugar, starch, and fibre

Name the four types of sugar

Granulated, caster, brown, and icing

Give the functions of sugar

To make things sweet and to soften sharpness

Preservative for jam

Aerate and lighten cake in creamed mixtures

Add colour in cakes, biscuits, and pastries

Caramelisation to top off desserts (the sugar is heated)

How are sugar substitutes healthier than cane sugar?

They're better for your teeth

Contain fewer calories

Are good for diabetics

What can't sugar substitutes be used for? And why?

For home baking because they do not have the same properties as cane sugar

What can sugar substitutes be used for?

Sweetening drinks and foods.

Name the four things starch is used for

As a bulking agent

A gelling agent

A thickening agent

In maufactured products

How is starch used as a bulking agent?

Starch granules swell when a liquid is added. E.g. In pasta, the flour makes up the bulk.

How is starch used as a gelling agent?

Moisture is added and heat us applied

Starch granules absorb the liquid and swell

At 80 degrees Celsius the starch particles begin to break open, making the mixture thick and vicious - this is geltinisation

Geltinisation is completed when the liquid reaches 100 degrees Celcius

The thickened liquid now forms a gel

On cooling, the gel solidifies and takes the form of the container it's in

How is starch used as a thickening agent?

The starch and liquid are mixed together

The starch granules form a suspension - they don't dissolve

The mixture is stirred to keep the particles suspended

Heat is applied and geltinisation occurs, which causes thickening

How is starch used in manufactured products?

Modified starch is used to thicken things like instant desserts, whipped cream, yogurts, and packet soup

Usually a liquid is added to the starch and it is stirred or whisked

What are modified starches called?

Smart starches

What does gluten do in bread?

It helps the bread dough to stretch and rise

What does pre gelatinised starch do when mixed with hot water? In what foods is this used?

It thickens instantly, and can be used in packet custard and instant noodles

When protein is heated what does it do?

It coagulates (become more solid) and squeezes out the fat and water. This is called syneresis.

What do some starches allow products to be without when reheated?

Syneresis (when protein coagulates and squeezes the fat and water out of a food). This is useful in lasagna and other frozen foods, so they keep their moisture and nutrients when they're cooked.

What can modified starches be affected by? What is the exception?

Acid, so they don't work properly. But some modified starches are immune it, so they can be used to thicken acidic products, e.g. salad cream, which contains vinegar.

What flour should you use to get a well risen loaf of bread?

Strong bread flour because it will form more gluten than other types of flour.

When dough made with flour is kneaded, a protein called what is formed?


What does dough mixture contain? What does this do?

It contains yeast which ferments the sugar to produce carbon dioxide.

What holds the carbon dioxide in bread?

Gluten, which stretches. This makes the bread rise.

When the gluten coagulates in dough what happens to the dough?

The dough stays stretched to give the light, airy texture of the bread.

Name three high-grade sources of protein

Meat, poultry, and fish

What is protein needed for in our bodies?

Growth and repair of muscles, tissues, and organs. It helps children grow.

What is protein made of?

Amino acids.

Why does the body need amino acids?

It can make some but not others by itself - the ones we need to consume are called essential amino acids.

Which proteins contain all of the essential amino acids?

Meat, fish, eggs, milk, and soya beans, etc.

Which proteins only contain some of the essential amino acids?

Peas, lentils, nuts, and most beans.

What does the body do with proteins you have eaten?

Breaks them down into amino acids and uses these to build new proteins.

What are three main types of red meat consumed in the UK?

Beef, lamb, and pork.

What beef and lamb contain?

Vitamin B and minerals like iron and zinc.

What does pork contain?

Thiamin (vitamin B1) and niacin (vitamin B3).

What can too much red meat cause?

Heart disease.

How do you tenderise meat? How does this work?

Hit it with a mallet, marinate it with something acidic, or cooking it really slowly. This breaks down the fibres in the meat.

How would you avoid meat drying out in the oven?

Seal the outside of the meat by cooking it at a high temperature for the first couple of minutes - this keeps the juices in.

Name the three main types of fish.

Oily fish, white fish, and shellfish.

What does fish contain?

Lots of vitamins and omega 3 oils.

Name the three main types of poultry eaten in the UK.

Chicken, turkey, and duck.

What's poultry also known as?

White meat.

Why is poultry good for you?

It is a good source of protein and vitamin B. It is also low in saturated fat.

What could be a problem with poultry?

It could be contaminated with salmonella bacteria, which could make you seriously ill.

Name three alternative proteins

Tofu, TVP, and Quorn.

How could you introduce flavour to an alternative protein?

By marinating it.