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173 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Microorganisms are capable of producing what? 1-1
Acids, alcohols, Co2, and toxins
A Pathogen does what? 1-2
Makes you sick
An acid produced during spoilage of milk causes... 1-3
Protein denaturation
Who demonstrated that air was not the cause of spoilage? 1-4a
Louis Pasteur
Who was the father of canning? 1-4b
Nicholas Appert
Who invented the first microscope? 1-4c
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Which of the following usually requires the highest pH (lowest acid level) for growth? yeast, mold, bacteria, virus 2-1
Bacteria
Which of the following are FAT-TOM factors that affect the growth of microorganisms? time, temperature, oxygen, moisture, all of the above 2-2
All of the above
What is a term that describes a heat loving organism? 2-3
Thermophile
The term facultative anaerobic means an organism will grow under what type of conditions? 2-4
In the presence or absence of oxygen
Most spoilage bacteria require an Aw that is greater than _____? 2-5
0.91
A natural substance found in cranberries that inhibits the growth of yeasts and molds. 3-1
Sodium benzoate
What inhibitory substance is added to bread to control the growth of mold? 3-2
Calcium propionate
What are three statements that are NOT true of a bacterial endospore? 3-3
Are difficult to kill even with heat, are very resistant structures, and is a survival mechanism of the organism.
Under optimal conditions, what grows fastest? yeast, bacteria, or mold 3-4
Bacteria
At the stationary phase, organisms are doing what?
Question 5 answers 3-5
Running out of food, space, etc.
How many bacteria would be in a sample of milk if there were 5 colonies growing on a 1:10,000 dilution plate? 4-1
50,000
A highly resistant structure produced by only certain bacteria. 4-2
Endospore
Propionate inhibits _________ while benzoate inhibits __________. 4-3
Mold; yeast and mold
Clostridium botulinum is a sporeforming bacterium that will not germinate at a pH... 4-4
<4.6
A fooodborne intoxication is caused by the _________, while a foodborne infection is caused by the presence of __________. 4-5
Toxin; bacteria
An emetic, such as the toxin producted by bacillus cereus, causes what? 4-6
Vomiting
Patulin is teratogen, which means it causes what? 4-7
Birth defects
__________ causes a low body temperature and produces a heat-stable toxin. 4-8
Staphylococcus aureus
__________ is an anaerobic bacterium that is heat-labile/sensitive and difficult to diagnose. 4-9
Clostridium botulinum
__________ is a facultative anaerobe that produces 2 different types of toxins. 4-10
Bacillus cereus
Which causes the most cases of foodborne illness? 5-1
Campylobacter
Which causes the most cases of serious foodborne illness? 5-2
Salmonella
What microorganism(s) is/are associated with poultry? 5-3
Salmonella and Campylobacter
Which of the following microorganism(s) is/are pychrotrophs (able to grow at low/refrigerator temperatures)? 5-4
Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica
What causes foodborne infections? 5-5
Vibrio cholera
This organism is found inside the egg of a chicken. 5-6
Salmonella enteriditis
This organism is found in the intestinal track of poultry. 5-7
Campylobacter jejuni
Typhoid Mary was a/an __________ carrier of the bacteria __________, which means she was a carrier of the pathogen, but had no symptoms. 5-8
Asymptomatic; Salmonella
Which is the #1 most dangerous food to consume? 5-9
Raw oysters
The following genus has outbreaks associated with natural disasters and oysters.
Question 10 answers. 5-10
Vibrio
Listeria is associated with what? 5-11
Still births, lunch meat, and unpasteurized milk
A toxin-mediated infection is caused by what? 6-1
The toxin produced by the bacteria once it is growing inside you.
E. coli causes which unique symptoms? 6-2
Hemorrhagic colitis, Bloody diarrhea, and HUS
Which of the following causes toxin-mediated infections? Clostridium botulinum, Shigella, E. coli 6-3
Shigella and E. coli
Hepatitis A is the only hepatitis transmitted from food. It targets the what? 6-4
Liver
__________ causes more gastrointestinal disease than any other organism and is associated with cruise ships. 6-5
Norovirus
(True of False) All of the viruses discussed in class are fecally transmitted. 6-6
True
Which of the following does NOT constitute a food as "potentially hazardous"? A. High in protein
B. High Aw
C. High in lipids
D. Low acid 6-7
High in lipids
Foods should be cooked at least to the minimum recommended temperatures. Those temperatures are what? 6-8
Poultry: 165°F; Ground Meats: 155°F; Other potentially hazardous foods: 145°F
The #1 parasite associated with humans is __________. 7-1
Giardia
__________ is associated with cats and can affect the unborn. 7-2
Toxoplasma gondii
This parasite is associated with imported foods. 7-3
Cyclospora
Pork is associated with __________. 7-4
Trichinella
(True of False) Food intolerance is due to an immune response to a particular food. 7-5
False
An anaphylactoid reaction is associated with what? 7-6
Food Allergy
The "Big 8" are responsible for 90% of IgE-mediated food allergies and include all of the following EXCEPT what? 7-7
Corn
__________ food allergies are responsible for immediate hypersensitivity to a particular food, while __________ food allergies are responsible for delayed hypersensitivity to a particular food. 7-8
IgE-mediated; cell-mediated
Which age group is most at risk for dying due to a true food allergy? 7-9
10-19
The treatment for cell-mediated food allergies include what? 7-10
A lifelong gluten-free diet
This toxin is found in soybeans, oats, and wheat and interferes with the digestion of protein. 8-1
Trypsin
This toxin interferes with the function of the thyroid gland. 8-2
Goitrogen
This part of rhubarb should NEVER be eaten because it is poisonous. 8-3
Leaves
Remove the "eyes" on your potatoes before eating to avoid this toxic substance: 8-4
Solanine
__________ is found in raw eggs and can cause a vitamin (biotin) deficiency. 8-5
Avadin
BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) causes __________ in cattle. 8-6
Holes in the brain and a spongy brain.
A __________ is a non-replicating molecule that converts the shape of a healthy, chemically identical protein to a deadly form which causes BSE, CJD, and Kuru. 8-7
Prion
The form of BSE that is found in humans is known as what? 8-8
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Kuru appeared just in the __________ of the New Guinea tribe, because they were only allowed to eat the non-muscle parts of their dead relatives. 8-9
Women and children
To avoid BSE, Kuru, and CJD, never eat the __________ of the infected organism. 8-10
Brain and/or spinal chord
A chemical added to pop to inhibit the growth of yeast and mold
Potassium Benzoate
A count that determines the quality of raw products in such things as baby food.
Mold Fragment
A term that describes microorganisms that prefer oxygen but can also grow without it.
Facultative anaerobes
Corkscrew-shaped bacteria
Spirilla
The method by which heating kills microorganisms present in wine, beer and most notably, mile.
Pasteurization
A term to describe a microorganism that likes very high temperatures
Thermophilic
A phase of microbial growth in which there is slow growth.
Lag
The process by which bacteria reproduce
Binary Fission
The phase in which the growth of the microorganism remains constant
Stationary
He is considered the father of pasteurization
Louis Pasteur
A spoilage organism that does not cause foodborne illness
Yeast
A chemical added to bread to slow the growth of yeast
Calcium Propionate
Defined as the ratio of water vapor pressure of the food to the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature.
water activity
It might be sugar for some or protein for other microorganisms
Food
A molecule that likes to form hydrogen bonds with other molecues
Polar molecule
This species of bacteria cause foodborne infection.
Salmonella
A foodborne condition caused by eating a food that contains a poisonous toxin that was produced by a microorganism.
Intoxication
A mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavis.
Aflatoxin
An endospore-forming pathogen.
Bacilluscereus
Organisms that live in or on a host such as an animal.
Parasites
Claviceps purpurea produces this mycotoxin.
Ergotism
An illness that is caused by a chemical or biological agent in food.
Foodborne
A carcinogen produced by mold on apples.
Patulin
An infection that occurs when food contains pathogens that infect the intestine such as E. coli.
Toxinmediated
A spore forming obligate anaerobe that produces a neurotoxin in food.
Clostridium Botulinum
Another name for mold toxins.
Mycotoxins
A non-spore forming, faculative anaerobe.
Staphylococcus Aureus
A foodborne condition that occurs when a person eats food that contains a living pathogen.
Infection
An infection that replicates inside a living cell such as Hepatitis A and Rotavirus.
Viral
A term to describe a toxin that is released by a microogranism that inflames the intestinal lining.
Enterotoxin
Coliform bacteria are found here
Feces
Produced by molds
Spores
An acronym for the conditions that affect microbial growth
FATTOM
A process designed to kill bacteria in food
Irradiation
An instrument used to dertermine vapor pressure
Manometer
A method for determining the number of microorganisms in a food sample
Plate count
Another substance used to preserve food
Sugar
A cure-shaped bacteria
Vibrios
Organisms that grow in a network of filaments
Molds
A type of organism that must have oxygen to survive
Aerobic
Microorganisms that require the absence of oxygen to survive
Anaerobic
A term that describes a cold-loving microorganism
Psychrophilic
A substance used to preserve food
Salt
A process in which yeast is produced
Budding
A phase in which there are no more nutrients available to the microorganism
Death
The hydrogen of hydroxyl ion content of PH
Acidity
Streptococcus salivarius is found here
Salvia
To remove this is a from of preservation
Water
A microbial contaminant that requires a living cell to survive
Virus
Bacteria that cause several ilnesses and death
Pathogens
A dutchman who built the first microscope
Anon van Leeuwenhoek
Rod-shaped bacterial cells
Bacilli
It is what allow bacterial mobility
Flagella
A term that describes bacteria that grow well at refrigerated temperatures
Psychrotrophic
A phase in which there is exponential growth of the microorganism
LOG
The Frenchman who developed the process used in commercial canning
Nicolas Appert
A state in which the microorganism is actively multiplying
Vegetative
Compounds that produce vomiting, cramps and diarrhea.
Gastrointestinal Irritants
A toxicant that is found in rhubarb, spinach, tea and berries.
Oxalate
A mushroom toxin that causes coma, convulsions, hallucinations and depression.
Neurotoxin
A marine neurotoxin found in puffer fish that blocks nerve impulses.
Tetrodotoxin
A toxicant found in peanuts, beans and soybeans.
Hemaglutinin
A 22 carbon-long fatty acid found in mustard and rapeseed.
Erucic Acid
Produce hydrogen cyanide within the stomach.
Cyogenic Glycosides
A mushroom toxin that results in organ failure.
Protoplasmic
Toxicants that interfere with the catalytic activity of enzymes.
Enzyme inhibitors
A mushroom toxin that only produces symptoms when alcohol is also consumed.
Disulfiramlike
Naturally occurring poisons found in food.
Toxicants
A toxicant found in the eyes of potatoes.
Solanine
An inhibitor that is found in soybeans, oats, and wheat.
Trypsin
Toxicants found in turnips, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage and cauliflower.
Goitrogens
A type of cyogenic glycoside found in sassafras, mace and nutmeg.
Safrole
The release of a substance like histamine that cuases adverse effects
Degranulate
A foodborne illness cause by a non-microbial chemical
Chemical intoxication
A reaction to gluten
Celiac Disease
It can be a quite severe immediate hypersensitivity reaction
IGE
A type of reaction cause by, for example, strawberries or chocolate
Anaphylactoid
It is produced by an organism and causes foodborne intoxication
Toxin
This organism causes a foodborne infestation
Parasite
Asthma induced sulfite sesitivity and food induced migraines are examples of this type of reaction.
Idiosyncratic
Any illness that results from the ingestion of food
Food Illness
Another term for allergy
Sensitivity
A food disorder caused by the lack of a specific enzyme. Examples include lactose intolerance and phenylketonuria
Metabolic
It can cause a foodborne infection, viral infection of foodborne toxin-mediated infection
Microorganism
A food allergy is an example of this type of food sensitivity
Immunological
A toxicant found in raw eggs and causes a biotin deficiency.
Avidin
A term to describe the lack or reduction of oxygen in body tissue.
Anoxia
The B in BSE.
Bovine
A rapid assay for BSE which is sometimes inconclusive.
Elisa
Continent most known for cases of BSE.
Europe
The agency responsible for testing the US meat supply.
USDA
BSE is also known as this.
Mad Cow Disease
BSE belongs to this group of spongiform encephalopathies.
Transmissible
The S in BSE.
Spongiform
A cow that has been injured and cannot be used in manufacturing.
Downer
BSE was first discovered in this country.
Great Britain
This is the agent responsible for BSE.
Rogue Protein
A test involving staining of brain-stem tissue.
IHC
Sheep and goats contract this form of BSE.
Scrapie
Animal feeds contain these (recycled) proteins.
Ruminant
State which reported the first case of BSE in a native cow.
Texas
There is no known ___ for this disease (BSE).
Cure
The organization that studies disease and tracks outbreaks
CDC Center for Diseast Control (and prevention)
A disease in humans believed to be related to BSE
VCJD (variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease)
A test also known as gel electrophoresis
Western Blot
The E in BSE
Encephalopathy
BSE is this kind of disease
Neurological
Deer and elk contract this form of BSE
CWD (Chronic Wasting Disease)