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184 Cards in this Set

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What method did the first humans use to obtain food?
Hunter-Gathering
Who was the first to suggest that microorganisms may have had a role in food spoilage?
A. Kircher
Who made the earliest microscope used to first observe microorganisms?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
What did Anton van Leeuwenhoek call the first microorganisms that he observed?
animalules
Who began commercial caning as a means of food preservation in 1809?
Francois Nicolas Appert
What is the processing method that began by using heat to destroy the undesirable microorganisms in wine and beer?
pasteurization
What are the most dangerous microorganisms to invade food systems?
Bacteria
What type of bacteria can cause severe human illness or even death?
Pathogens
What term means "one cell"?
unicellular
Spherical bacteria
cocci
rod-shaped cells
bacilli
curved bacteria
vibrios
corkscrew-shaped bacteria
spirilla
A transverse side-to-side division across the cell which forms two cell walls.
Binary fission
Molds grow by a network of filaments and reproduce by spreading _______, which are carried by air currents to suitable growth environments.
spores
In addition to being important spoilage organisms, certain molds produce very potent ______ in food.
toxins
T/F: Yeasts are known for their ability to spoil certain foods very rapids, but do not cause illness.
True
Budding
An outgrowth of the mother cell gets larger.
T/F: Viruses are the largest of the microbial contaminants.
False. They are the smallest
FAT-TOM
Food, Acidity, Time, Temperature, Oxygen, Moisture
___ microorganisms favor very high temperatures.
Thermophilic
____ microorganisms can survive particular heat treatments such as blanching, pasteurization, and canning, but do not grow at the high temperature.
Thermoduric
____ bacteria prefer temperatures ranging from 68 - 110 degrees F. Most pathogenic microorganisms are these.
Mesophilic
_____ bacteria are true cold-loving organisms that grow well at refrigeration temperatures, but very poorly at room temperatures. Very rare in nature outside the depths of the ocean or other cold climates and are extremely rare in food.
Psychrophilic
_____ bacteria flourish at refrigerated temperatures, but do not require low temperatures for growth and will increase more rapidly at room temperatures. They are found in or on nearly all foods and are responsible for most spoilage of refrigerated foods.
Psychrotrophic
___ microorganisms must have oxygen present in the air if they are to survive.
Aerobic
____ microorganisms do not use molecular oxygen in respiration. They cannot grow even if oxygen is present.
Anaerobic
_____ prefer oxygen environments, but they are capable of growth without it.
Facultative anaerobes
Molds are highly ______ and their need for abundant oxygen restricts their growth to the surface of foods.
aerobic
Yeasts are typical _____ that prefer oxygen but are capable of growth under reduced oxygen.
facultative anaerobes
Bacteria are which of the following: aerobic, anaerobic, facultative anaerobes
all of the above
Water is referred to as a ______ since it has localized charges.
polar molecule
____ and ____ are two substances that have been used throughout history to preserve food.
Salt and sugar
A term that describes the degree of availability of water in the food. The ratio of water vapor pressure of the food to the vapor pressure of pure water at the same temperature.
Water Activity
An analytical instrument used to determine the vapor pressure.
Manometer
Salt-loving bacteria
halophilic
The time required for the population of microorganisms to double
Generation time
Occurs when the microorganism is getting accustomed to the growth medium and developing the enzyme systems necessary to use the medium as a food source.
Lag phase
Exponential growth phase, where growth is rapid.
Log phase
When the growing population of microorganisms deplete a necessary nutrient, produce wastes (alcohol, acid) that inhibit growth, or use up all of the oxygen, the number of microorganisms remains constant; hence it has this name
Stationary phase
Depletion of nutrients or accumulation of wastes may result in a decline in numbers called the _____.
Death phase
Mechanisms in bacteria for surviving unfavorable environmental conditions
endospores
The period when the microorganism is actively multiplying is referred to as the ______
vegetative stage
If it encounters an adverse condition (too dry, too hot, insufficient food, etc.), spore-forming bacteria will ______ producing a covering over its genetic material
sporulate
Safe to drink
potable
One method of determining the number of microorganisms present in the food supply. A known quantity of food is placed on a petri dish and a growth medium is added and allowed to solidify. Each microorganism will replicate, and in time, form a visible colony.
Plate count
A number multiplied by the number counted on the petri dish if the sample must be diluted.
Dilution factor
Specific types of microorganisms whose presence provides information on how the product was treated or contaminated.
Indicator microorganisms
A microorganism that indicates the product was somehow contaminated by saliva.
Streptococcus salivarius
A group of microorganisms commonly found in the feces of animals and humans which indicate fecal contamination and the possible presence of human pathogenic microorganisms.
Coliform bacteria
Samples of products are viewed under a microscope for the presence of mold filaments.
Mold fragment count
To remove this is a form of preserving.
Water
A process designed to kill bacteria in food.
Irradiation
A phase in which there are no more nutrients available to the microorganism.
Death
A molecule that likes to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules.
Polar molecule
A term that describes bacteria that grow well at refrigerated temperatures.
Psychrotrophic
Bacteria that cause several illnesses and death.
Pathogens
A count that determines the quality of new products in such things as baby food.
Mold fragment
Produced by molds
spores
A term that describes a cold-loving microorganism
psychrophilic
A curve-shaped bacteria
vibrios
A state in which the microorganism is actively multiplying
vegetative
A term to describe a microorganism that likes very high temperatures
thermophilic
The method by which heating kills microorganisms present in wine, beer and most notably, milk.
Pasteurization
Coliform bacteria are found here.
Feces
A spoilage organism that does not cause foodbourne illness
yeast
The hydrogen or hydroxyl ion content or pH.
Acidity
Rod-shaped bacterial cells
bacilli
A microbial contaminant that requires a living cell to survive.
Virus
A term that describes microorganisms that prefer oxygen but can also grow without it.
facultative anaerobes
A type of organism that must have oxygen to survive
Aerobic
Streptococcus salivarius is found here
saliva
The phase in which the growth of the microorganism remains constant
Stationary
A chemical added to pop to inhibit the growth of yeast and mold
potassium benzoate
It is what allow bacterial mobility
flagella
a process in which yeast reproduce
budding
Microorganisms that require the absence of oxygen to survive
anaerobic
a phase in which there is exponential growth of the microorganism
log
Organisms that grow in a network of filaments
molds
corkscrew-shaped bacteria
spirilla
A chemical added to bread to slow the growth of yeast.
Calcium propionate
A phase of microbial growth in which there is slow growth.
lag
A method for determining the number of microorganisms in a food sample.
Plate count
An instrument used to determine vapor pressure.
manometer
Microorganisms are capable of producing which of the following: acids, alcohol, CO2, toxins
all of the above
Who demonstrated that air was not the cause of spoilage?
Louis Pasteur
Who developed the first microscope?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Who is the father of canning?
Nicholas Appert
Who received the Nobel Prize in 1905 for demonstrating that a particular organism is responsible for a disease and that it can be transmitted from one animal to another?
Robert Koch
A pathogen does what?
Makes you sick.
An acid produced during spoilage of milk causes ___.
Protein denaturation
Which of the following are FAT-TOM factors that affect the growth of microorganisms? (Moisture, temperature, oxygen, time)
All of the above
Which of the following usually requires the highest pH (lowest acid level) for growth? (Bacteria, Mold, Virus, Yeast, None of the above)
Bacteria
Which of the following terms describes a heat-loving organism? (Mesophile, psychrophile, psychrotroph, thermophile)
Thermophile
The microorganism responsible for milk spoilage (while it is kept in the refrigerator is: (Mesophile, psychrophile, psychrotroph, thermophile)
Psychotroph
The term facultative anaerobic means an organism will grow under what time of conditions?
In the presence or absence of oxygen.
Bacterial ____ is responsible for the slimy "texture" of spoiled fish or chicken.
capsule
T/F: Viruses replicate in food and living cells.
False
Most spoilage bacteria require an Aw that is greater than ___?
0.91
A natural substance found in cranberries that inhibits the growth of yeasts and molds would be which of the following?
Sodium benzoate
Which of the following inhibitory substances is added to bread to control the growth of mold?
Calcium propionate
Under optimal conditions, which of the following grows fastest: Yeast, bacteria, mold, all grow at about the same rate
Bacteria
Which of the following is true of a bacterial endospore: are difficult to kill even with heat, are very resistant structures, is a survival mechanism of the organism
all of the above
At the stationary phase, organisms are doing what?
Running out of food, space, etc.
Propionate inhibits ___ while benzoate inhibits____.
mold; yeast and mold
Plate count was used to determine the microbial load in 1 ml of milk. 35 colonies were counted on the 1:1000 dilution plate. How many CFU (Colony Forming Units) per ml were in the original sample of milk?
35,000
A bacteria with an initial population of 3 colonies, has a generation time of 20 min. How many bacteria will there be after 2 hours under optimum conditions for growth?
192
The FDA has estimated that there are how many acute foodborne disease episodes annually
24-80 million
Foodborne illness
caused by a chemical or biological agent that is carried in the food
Parasites
Organisms that live in or on a host such as an animal
Salmonella
This species of bacteria cause foodborne infection
Claviceps purpurea produces this mycotoxin
Ergotism
A spore forming obligate anaerobe that produces a neurotoxin in food
clostridiumbotulinum
A term to describe a toxin that is released by a microorganism that inflames the intestinal lining
Enterotoxin
Toxinmediated
An infection that occurs when food contains pathogens that infect the intestine such as E. coli
Infection
A foodborne condition that occurs when a person eats food that contains a living pathogen
Aflatoxin
A mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavis
Foodborne
An illness that is caused by a chemical or biological agent in food
Patulin
A carcinogen produced by mold on apples
Mycotoxins
another name for mold toxins
Bacilluscereus
An endospore-forming pathogen
Viral
An infection that replicates inside a living cell such as Hepatitis A and Rotavirus
Intoxication
A foodborne condition caused by eating a food that contains a poisonous toxin that was produced by a microorganism
Staphylococcusaureus
a non-spore forming, facultative anaerobe
Patulin is a carcinogen produced by molds growing on corn.
False
In a restaurant food-prep area, mold is discovered on a 5 lb block of cheddar cheese. This should be carefully trimmed off before serving to customers.
False
St. Anthony's Fire, an epidemic during Middle Ages, was the result of consuming moldy rye.
True
This is a potent liver carcinogen
Aflatoxin
There is a hypothesis that the strange behavior of the residents of Salem Massachusetts was the result of consuming mold-infested rye. What is the compound produced by the mold that could account for bizarre behaviors?
Lysergic acid
A highly resistant structure produced by only certain bacteria.
Endospore
Clostridium botulinum is a sporeforming bacterium that will not germinate at a pH...
<4.6
An emetic, such as the toxin produced by Bacillus cereus, causes
Vomiting
____ causes a low body temperature and produces a heat-stable toxin.
Staphylococcus aureus
_____ is an anaerobic bacterium that is heat-labile/sensitive and difficult to diagnose.
Clostridium botulinum
Which of the following is a medical use for Clostridium botulinum toxin? (clenching of jaw muscle, kill cancer cells, wrinkle remover
clenching of jaw muscle, wrinkle remover
Honey is not safe for kids under 1 year of age, because Clostridium botulinum spores will be able to germinate, grow, and produce toxin in their intestinal track.
True
____ is a facultative anaerobe that produces two different types of toxins.
Bacillus cereus
A foodborne intoxication is caused by the ________________, while a foodborne infection is caused by the presence of ________________.
toxin; bacteria
Patulin is teratogen, which means it causes
Birth defects
What bacterium causes the most cases of serious foodborne illness?
Salmonella
What bacterium causes the most cases of foodborne illness?
Campylobacter
This organism is found inside the egg of a chicken.
Salmonella enteriditis
Listeria is associated with:
Lunch meat, still births, unpasteurized milk
What pathogen(s) is/are associated with poultry?
Salmonella, campylobacter
What antibody is associated with a true food allergy?
IgE
T/F: Anaphylaxis is a severe type of allergic reaction that involves two or more body systems (e.g., hives and difficulty breathing.)
True
The "Big 8" are responsible for 90% of IgE-mediated food allergies and include all of the following EXCEPT: (egg, corn, crustacea, tree nuts)
Corn
____ occurs when an individual lacks the enzymes necessary to utilize a specific food component. A classic example is lactose intolerance.
Metabolic food disorder
Which allergen does not cause the most food allergies in infants? (eggs, crustacean shellfish, soy, milk)
Crustacean shellfish
This food is responsible for most food allergy related fatalities.
Peanuts
This should be administered as soon as there is indication an individual is experiencing a severe allergic reaction.
Epinephrine
Which of the following microorganism(s) is/are psychrotrophs (able to grow at low/refrigerator temperatures)? (salmonella typhi, listeria monocytogenes, yersinia enterocolitica)
Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica
A toxin-mediated infection is caused by:
the toxin produced by the bacteria once it is growing inside you.
Which of the following causes toxin-mediated infections? (Clostridium botulinum, E. coli, Shigella)
E. coli and shigella
E. coli causes which of the following unique symptoms? (bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, HUS)
Bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, HUS
____ causes more gastrointestinal disease than any other organism and has been associated with outbreaks on cruise ships.
Norovirus
This organism is frequently involved in outbreaks in daycare centers
Shigella
T/F: All E. coli strains are pathogenic, meaning that all E. coli strains are a human threat.
False
Which virus causes the most cases of foodborne disease?
Norovirus
Hepatitis A is the only hepatitis transmitted from food. It targets the:
liver
T/F: All of the viruses discussed in class are fecally transmitted.
True
Which of the following does NOT constitute a food as "potentially hazardous"?
High in lipids
Foods should be cooked at least to the minimum recommended temperatures. Those temperatures are:
A) Poultry: 165 F; Ground Meats: 155 F; Other potentially hazardous foods: 145 F
The #1 parasite associated with humans is ____.
Giardia
This parasite has been associated with imported raspberries.
Cyclospora
___ is associated with cats and can affect the unborn.
Toxoplasma
Pork is associated with ___.
Trichinella
Cause of major waterborne outbreak in Milwaukee
Tapeworm
Reproduce by producing proglottids
Associated with sushi
Cats are a reservoir
Single Cell organism
Cryptosporidium
Taenia
Taenia
Anisakis
Toxoplasma gondii
Protozoa
This toxin is found in soybeans, oats, and wheat, and interferes with the digestion of protein.
Trypsin inhibitor
This toxin interferes with the function of the thyroid gland.
Goitrogen
This part of rhubarb should never be eaten, because it is poisonous
Leaves
___ is found in raw eggs and can cause a vitamin (biotin) deficiency.
Avidin
Remove the "eyes" on your potatoes before eating to avoid this toxic substance.
Solanine
A ___ is a non-replicating molecule that converts the shape of a healthy, chemically identical protein to a deadly form which causes BSE, CJD, and Kuru.
Prion
The form of BSE that is found in humans is known as:
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Kuru appeared just in the ___ of the New Guinea tribe, because they were only allowed to eat the non-muscle parts of their dead relatives.
Women and children
What is a toxic compound found in the puffer fish?
Tetrodoxin
What was one deadly way that milk distributors increased their profit in the past?
Added unsanitary water
This person developed the poison squad.
Harvey Wiley
Upton Sinclair was responsible for the development of ____.
The book, The Jungle
The Meat Inspection Act
The quote, "I aimed at Americans' hearts and hit their stomachs."
What 2 Acts were passed in 1906 to increase the safety of products being sold in the US for consumption?
The Pure Food and Drug Act
The Meat Inspection Act
The ____ replaced the Pure Food and Drug Act.
Food Drug and Cosmetic Act
____ states that there is no margin of safety in foods for carcinogens.
The Delaney clause
Additives cannot be used in foods to:
Cover up faulty ingredients
Replace good food manufacturing practices