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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the 3 types of food contamination?

radiological, microbiological and chemical

What are 2 inherent food contaminants?

Mycotoxins (aflatoxin, ochratoxin) and heavy metals

What are 2 process related food contaminants?

Solvents (hexane, ethanol), heat formed toxicants (acrylamide)

What are 2 economic adulterants?

replacements (melamine), additions (Venetian red)

Where do chemical naturally occur?

soil, fungal contamination, algal contamination, industrial pollution, agriculture and veterinary practices, food processing and packaging

What is JECFA?

Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants

What is JMPR?

Joint Meeting on Pesticides and Residues

Who is responsible for toxicological assessment?


What are the 2 additives relevant to food safety?

food additives, food flavourings

What 6 contaminants are relevant to food safety?

Microbial toxins, plant toxins, process contaminants, environmental contaminants, food contact materials and naturally occurring contaminants

What 3 residues are relevant to food safety?

pesticide residues, veterinary drug residues, processing aids

What is an additive?

legal substance intentionally added to food to enhance quality, shelf-life, flavour, safety. Added during manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packaging, transport or storage. Become component of food

What are the 2 types of contaminant?

natural or anthropogenic

What 2 ways are contaminants added to food?

intentionally or not intentionally

What is residue?

Remnants of substances intentionally added to foods. Usually pesticides, veterinary drugs and agrochemicals

What are MRLs?

Maximum Residue Levels: upper legal conc level in food or feed to ensure lowest possible consumer exposure

What are ADIs?

Acceptable daily intake: intake that causes no adverse affect taken daily for a lifetime (mg/kg)

What are TWIs?

Tolerable weekly intake: permissible weekly exposure to contaminants unavoidably associated with otherwise wholesome and nutritious foods

What are MTDIs?

Maximum tolerable daily intake: food contaminants not known to accumulate in body including tin, arsenic and styrene

What are NOAELs?

No observed adverse effect level: greatest conc of agent that causes no detectable alteration of morphology, functional capacity, growth development or lifespan of target

What are NOAELs used to calculate?


What are LOAELs?

Lowest conc that there are biologically significant increases in frequency or severity

What is a irreducible level?

applies to potent carcinogens including mycotoxins, conc of substance which can't eliminated from food without discarding food

What does ALARA mean?

As low as reasonably possible: levels of contaminant should always maintain as low as possible

How are ADIs calculated?

NOAEL X Safety Factor 1 (animals to human factor) X Safety Factor 2 (human variation) = ADI

What is risk the product of?

Hazard and exposure

What are pesticides?

chemicals used to control harmful or undesired organisms or plants or to regulate growth of plants as crop protection agents

Why can pesticides be toxic to humans?

biochemical pathways are common across species

What are the 2 classes of human exposure?

Acute (immediate) and chronic (effect over lifespan)

What does severity of human exposure depend on?


What are the 3 toxic effects pesticides can have on humans?

enzyme inhibition, endocrine disruption, carcinogenic action

What are the 6 types of pesticides?

insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, molluscides, plant growth regulators

What is the control of pesticides based on in Europe?

Council Directive No.: 91/414/EEC

What are the 4 types of veterinary drugs?

antibacterial compounds, hormones, antiparasitic/antihelminthic drugs and anti-inflammatory drugs

How are proposed pesticides evaluated?

Based on a dossier compiled by manufacturer, if passed: placed on positive list with associated MRL

Where are drug residues found in animals?

major organs, musceles and body fluids

Where are antibacterial drug residues found in animals?

Kidney, liver and muscle

Where are hormone residues found in animals?


What 6 antibacterial compounds are used on animals?

Aminoglycosides, B-lactams, fluroquinones, macrolides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines

What 3 hormone drugs are used on animals?

B-agonists, steroids, thyrostat

What is food intoxication?

toxin absorbed directly into bloodstream via intestine

What causes food poisoning?

ingestion of preformed toxins in food, resulting from growth of bacteria, fungi or algae

What are the 4 main types of natural microbial toxins?

mycotoxins, phycotoxins, biogenic amines and bacterial toxins

What causes mycotoxins?

metabolism of fungi

What are sources of phycotoxins?

algal toxins: seafood especially molluscan shellfish

What produces bacterial toxins?

Bacillus cereus

What 3 symptoms do mycotoxins cause?

carcinogens, mutagens and estrogens

What do mycotoxins cause in non-industrialised countries?

increased morbidity and mortality in children, due to suppression of immune systems and consequent increased susceptibility to disease

What 3 fungi make mycotoxins?

Aspergillus, fusarium and penicillium

Which 2 fungi can grow at low aw?

Aspergillus and penicillium

Low aw growing fungi cause post-harvest spoilage of which foods?

cereals, nuts and spices

What fusarium?

plant pathogen, produces mycotoxins pre-harvest

What 2 things are involved in illness associated with seafood?

finfish (biogenic amines) and molluscan shellfish (phycotoxin)

What is the main risk factor of seafood related illness?

consumption of raw fish

What are the 4 symptoms of toxic shellfish consumption?

mild diarrhea, vomiting, memory, paralysis and death

What 4 food poisonings are associated with toxic marine algae?

paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), amnestic shellfish poisoning (ASP), azaspiracid poisoning (AZP)

What are the 4 food poisonings associated with finfish?

ciguatera poisoning, puffer fish poisoning, scrombroid or histamine poisoning

How are toxic fish distinguished?


Cooking removes which toxins?

most toxins not removed by cooking