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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What effect does alcohol have on breast milk?
Maternal alcohol use causes a reduction in the amount of milk ingested by the infant.
At 3 weeks of age what is the average volume and frequency recommended for formula-fed babies?
2-3 oz ever 2-3 hours
Required daily caloric intake for a 0-3 mo old baby is _________.
What age would you expect a baby to play peek-a-boo?
What age would you expect a child to speak in phrases of 2 words or more?
2 years.
At what age would a child be able to say his/her first and last name?
3 years.
At what age does a child recognize her own name?
9 months.
Who is LAIV approved for?
Ages 2-49. Contraindicated in chronic disease, asthma, etc.
Efficacy of influenza vaccine.
Hep B vaccine is contraindicated in people with what allergy?
Baker's yeast
What is the route of transmission of poliovirus?
You should adjust for preterm status until a child is what age?
24 months
Autism screening should be performed at what ages?
18 and 24 months.
List characteristics of Down's Syndrome (Trisomy 21).
flat facial profile
hyperflexible joints
single palmar crease
Brushfield spots
Rear-facing car seat until what age?
2 years
Booster seat until what point?
8-12 years old, or until the vehicle seat belt fits properly.
Children under ____ years old should sit in the rear seats of cars with seatbelt restraints.
13 y.o.
Female precocious puberty is defined as.....
onset of puberty before age 8, mostly ideopathic in nature (>85%)
Female delayed puberty is defined as . . .
No signs of puberty by age 13, may be due to low weight (nutrition), hormonal or genetic factors (Turner's Synd. XO female). May also present with short stature, wide webbed neck, broad shield-shaped chest, learning differences, no menses, etc.
Male precocious puberty is defined as . . .
Onset of puberty before 9 y.o. Only 40% ideopathic, CNS tumors most often implicated.
List 4 categories of medications used in treatment of acne
Benzoyl peroxide
Antibiotics (erythromycin, clindamycin, minocycline, tetracycline, azithromycin)
Acutane (Isotretinoin)
Combined oral contraceptives (for females only).
Adverse effects of Acutane:
mood changes/suicidal thoughts
Roseola causative pathogen:
Human herpes virus 6
s/s Roseola
Rosy-pink macular or macopapular rash that appears following 3-7 day period of high fever
s/s scarlet fever
Sandpaper rash (on day 2 and peels days later), headache, sore throat, fever, anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, exudative pharangitis
Pathogen responsible for scarlet fever
strep. pyogenes (GABHS)
What is the greatest concern with ruebella?
Teratogenic effects on unborn child - congenital ruebella syndrome.
Fifth's Disease
Parvovirus B19. 3-4 days mild flu sx. Then red rash "slapped cheek" appearance, spreads to trunk and extremities. Supportive treatment. Risk for hydrops fetalis if contracted by pregnant woman.
Hand Foot and Mouth disease
Coxsacki virus. Fever malaise sore throat, anorexia. 1-2 days later lesions on hands, feet, mouth. Supportive treatment. Trasmission is oral-fecal or droplet. Highly contagious, incubation period 2-6 weeks.
Rubella virus.
Mild symptoms of fever, sore throat, malaise, nasal discharge. Diffuse macopapular rash that lasts 3 days. Posterior cervical and post auricular lymphadenopathy. Arthralgia. Test Rubella IgM, report to public health. Mild self limiting illness, but risk to unborn child. Immunize to prevent disease in community.
Infectious Mononucleosis.
Epstein Barr Virus (HHV-4).
Fever, "shaggy" purple-white exudative pharangitis, malaise, mared diffuse lymphadenopathy, hepatic and splenic tenderness and occasional enlargement.
Serologic testing - monospot.
Leukopenia with lymphocytosis.
*Do not use amoxicillin to treat any co-infections, leads to rash.
Acute HIV infection.
Macopapular rash, fever, milk pharyngitis, ulcerating oral lesions, diarrhea, diffuse lymphadenopathy.
Occurs in response to high vial load.
Kawasaki Disease
Unknown pathogen.
Acute phase lasts 11 days: high fever >104, polymorphous exanthem on trunk, flexor surfaces, perinum, oral cavity (strawberry tongue). Bilateral conjunctivitis without discharge. Edema, erythema of hands, feet with peeling.
Treatment = IVIG, aspirin.
Most common type of anemia in childhood?
Iron Deficiency.
Screen for anemia at what ages / What is the age range of greatest risk for anemia?
12 mo. to 2.5 years
RDA of Vitamin D
400 IU
Which children should receive Vit D supplementation?
Exclusively and partially breastfed infants should recieve supplements of 400 IU/day until weaned and consume 1000mL/day of vitamin D fortified whole milk


Non-breastfed infants ingesting less than 1,000mL/day vitamin D-fortified formula should receive 400IU/day supplement.
Calcium requirements for toddler, preschool age, older children?
Toddler = 500mg

Preschool/young school age = 800mg

Older children/teens = 1300mg
Which children (0-3 y.o.) should receive iron supplementation?
preterm infants

term infants who have more than half feedings as breastmilk should have 1mg/kg/day iron supp. until introduction of iron rich foods (cereals, legumes, dark veggies, etc.)

Toddlers who do not have sufficient dietary iron intake.
Causes of stridor:
croup (laryngotracheobronchitis)
foreign body
congenital obstruction
peritonsillar abcess
acute epiglottitis
Causes of wheeze:
acute bronchiolitis
acute bronchitis
In thrush - what would a microscopic examination reveal?
ADHD medications are schedule ___.
II (potential for abuse)
What are first line drugs for treatment of lyme disease?
What drug would you use to treat a 6 y.o. boy with lyme disease?
amoxicillin. should avoid doxy in this age.
What is diagnostic of Hirschprung's disease?
Failure to pass meconium in the first 48 hours of life is suggestive. Usually diagnosed during neonatal period. Also known as aganglionic megacolon.
What are Koplik's spots?
Pathognomonic for measles. . . Found in the oral cavity, particularly on buccal mucosa, white and granular and circled by an erythematou ring.
Symptoms of pertussis?
"whooping cough"
Chest circumference of a 12 month old is approximately what size?
1-2 cm larger than head circumference.
How often should BP be measured in a 3 y.o. child?
What maternal disease can contribute to risk of congenital heard diseases such as transposition of the great vessels, VSD, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
maternal diabetes.
However congenital infections can lead to cardiac structural abnormalities, too (TORCH)
When does a child's vision approximate 20/20?
5-6 years
Age at which a child can first stand on one foot?
3 years
At what age would you first begin vision screening?
3 years
The average age of pubertal growth spurt in North American boys is:
12-14 years
Describe what increases risk of Reye syndrome.
Aspirin given during a viral infection in children and adolescents - particularly during varicella and influenza infection. s/s Reye syndrome include nausea, vomiting, headache, excitability, delirium, and combativeness leading to coma.
At what age should screening for oral health begin?
6 months