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297 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Actinic Keratosis
Precedes Squamous Cell Ca (tx'd with freezing)
Addison's Disease
Primary adrenalcortical deficiency (see hyperpigmentation due to increased MSH from increased ACTH)
Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, café-au-lait spots, short stature. See in young girls
McCune-Albright's syndrome = mosaic G protein signaling mutation
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural deafness, cataracts
Alport's syndrome
Anti-Basement Memrane Ab
Goodpasture's syndrome
Anti-Centromere Ab
Scleroderma/CREST
Anti-Double Stranded DNA antibodies (ANA)
SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
Anti-Epithelial Cell (desmoglein) Ab
Phemphigus Vulgaris (= blistering)
Anti-transglutaminase/gliadin Ab
Celiac Disease = diarrhea, distention and weight loss
Anti-Histone Ab
Drug-induced SLE
Ant-IgG Ab
Rheumatoid Arthritis (also seen with Sjogren's and cryoglobulinemia)
Anti-mitochondrial Ab
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (seen in females - presents with cholestasis and portal hypertension)
Anti-Neutrophil cytoplasmic Ab
Vasculitis (wegners, microscopic polyangitis, glomerulophritis
Anti-Platelet Ab
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)
Arachnodactyly with lens dislocation, aortic dissection, and hyperflexible joints
Marfan's Syndrome (fibrillin defect)
Non-reactive but accomodating pupil
Argyll Robertson's pupil = Neurosyphillis
Arnold-Chiari Malformation
Cerebellar Tonsillar Herniation (congenital)
multinucleated giant cells in nodules of cardiac inflammation
Aschoff Bodies- Rheumatic Fever
Mammillary atrophy
Wernicke's Encephalopathy (mostly chronic alcoholism)
Azurophilic granular needles in leukemic blasts
Auer Rods = AML (esp promyelocytic)
Autospenectomy
Sickle Cell Anemia (must immunize against encapsulated organisms)
Fanning/extension of big tow upon plantar scrape
Babinski's Sign = Infants and Upper motor neuron lesions
"Bamboo spine" on x-ray (spine's outlined with Ca deposits)
Ankylosing Spondylitis (chronic inflam arthritis, assoc with sacroilitis and HLA-B27)
Basophilic stippling of the RBCs
Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia
Slow progressive muscular weakness in boys
Becker's Muscular Dystrophy = Defective dystrophin (less severe than Duchenne's)
Unilateral facial drooping
Bell's Palsy = Lower motor CN VII palsy (affects the whole 1/2 face)
Bence Jones proteins
Multiple Myeloma or Waldenstroms (light chains) macroglobulinemia (IgM)
Berger's Disease
IgA nephropathy
Bernard-Soulier Disease
Platelet adhesion defect (autosomal recessive mutation of vW factor glycoprotein Gp1b)
Bilateral hilar adenopathy with uveitis
Sarcoidosis
"tennis-racket" shaped cytoplasmic organelles in Langerhans cells
Birbeck Granules on EM = Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
Bloody CSF on LP
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
"Blue Bloater"
Chronic bronchitis = hyperlasia of mucous cells = hypoxemia, polycythemia, and hypercapnia
Blue-domed cysts of mammary glands
Fibrocystic change of the breast
Blue Sclera
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Boot-Shaped Heart on x-ray
Right ventricular hypertrophy (seen with Tetrology of Fallot)
Bouchard's nodes
PIP swelling due to Osteoarthritis
Boutonniere deformity
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Oral infection with branching rods
Actinomyces Israelii (looks almost like fungus)
Bone "brown tumor"
Hemorrhage of osteolytic cysts. Seen in hyperparathyroid and Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica (vonRecklinghausen's Disease)
Male child with recurrent infections and no mature B cells
Bruton's Disease = X-linked agammaglobulinemia (defective tyrosine kinase)
Budd-Chiari Syndrome
Posthepatic Venous thrombosis (looks like CHF but without the JVD). Sx = abd pain, ascites, hepatomegly
Buerger's Disease
Small/medium artery vasculitis (classically seen in young male smokers)
8-14 translocation
Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc to Ig heavy chain)
"Stary sky" appearance on histology
Burkitt's lymphoma
Malignancy of WBCs assoc with EBV
Burkitt's lymphoma
bluish line on gingiva
Burton's lines = Lead poisoning
c-ANCA
Wegener's Granulomatosis
p-ANCA
Microscopic Polyangitis and Churg-Strauss (systemic vasculitis with asthma and eosinophilia)
Café-au-lait spots (hyperpigmentation)
Neurofibromatosis (I = + Lisch nodules (iris harmartoma), II = + bilateral acoustic neuromas)
Calf psuedohypertrophy
(CT and fat build up) Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
disarrayed graulosa cells/gland-like structures in eosinophilic fluid
Call-Exner Bodies - Granulosa-theca cell tumor of ovaries
Cardiomegly with apical atrophy
Chaga's Disease
Chagas Disease cause?
Trypanosome infection
Chancre
Non-painful indurated, ulcerated lesion = Primary syphilis
Ulcerated painful genital lesion with exudates
Chancroid = h. ducreyi
Charcots triad - diseases?
Multiple Sclerosis or Cholangitis
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech
Charcot's triad of Multiple sclerosis
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Charcot's triad of cholangitis
Hexogonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions
Charcot-Leyden crystals: Bronchial Asthma (eosinophilic membranes)
Chediak-Higashi disease
Phagocyte deficiency due to microtubular dysfunction (LYST-1 gene) = recurrent staph and strep infections with partial albinism and peripheral neuropathy. See granules in PMNs
Cherry-red macular spot
Tay-Sachs, Niemann-Pick, or central artery occulsion
Alternating slow and fast breathing
Cheyne-Stokes respirations = Central apnea in CHF and increased ICP
"Chocolate cysts"
Endometryosis in the ovary (frequently bilateral)
Chronic atrophic gastritis
Predisposes to gastric carcinoma and can lead to B12 deficiency
facial muscle spasm when tapped
Chostek's sign = Hypocalcemia
Clear cell vaginal adenocarcinoma
DES exposure in utero
Triad of psychosis, ataxia, and opthalmoplegia
Wernicke's Encephalopathy (mostly chronic alcoholism)
Bitter almond taste
CN poisoning (nitroprusside toxicity)
Almond shaped eyes with down-turned mouth
Prader-Willi
Barr bodies
Inactivated X chromosomes in PMNs: seen in Kleinfelter's Syndrome (XXY) and 3% of female PMNs
Stippled vaginal cells
"clue cells" of Bacterial vaginosis (Gardnerella + anaerobics = bacteria on epithelial cells)
Periosteum raised from bone, creating by triangular area seen on x-ray
Codman's triangle seen with osteosarcoma and osteomylitis
Painful blue fingers and toes with hemolytic anemia
Cold agglutinins = IgM that agglutinates blood in cold environments = mycoplasma pneumonia and infectious mononucleosis
Cold intolerance
Hypothyroidism
Small, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Condylomata Lata = Ulcer seen with secondary syphillis
Continuous machinery murmur
Patent ductus arteriosis
Infant with Hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
If lactate's normal = Cori's Disease = Debranching enzyme deficiency (alpha16 glycosidase)
If elevated lactate and uric acid = VonGierke's Disease = Glucose6Phosphatase deficiency = no gluconeogenesis or glycogenolysis
Cough, Conjunctivitis and Coryza (runny nose) + fever
Measles (see "spilled paint" rash that starts at head and moves down)
Eosinophilic globule in liver
Councilman Bodies- Toxic/viral hepatitis or yellow fever
Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic droplet-like inclusions in neurons
Cowdry Type A bodies seen with herpes
Bowman's Capsule Crescents
Rapidly progressive GN
Crigler-Najjar syndrome
Congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia due to absent UDP glucuronyl transferase = severe neonatal jaundice
Curling's Ulcer
Gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Currant-jelly sputum
Klebsiella
Currant-jelly stool
Intussception
Pink/rusty sputum
Strep pneumonia
Curshmann's spirals
Whorled mucous plugs seen with bronchial asthma
Cushing's ulcer
Gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
Elevated d-Dimer
Seen with DIC, pulmonary emboli, DVT, and Budd Chiari
Depigmentation of the Substantia nigra
Parkinson's Disease (due to decreased melanin secondary to decreased dopamine)
Dermatitis, Dementia, and Diarrhea
Pellagra from Niacin or Vit B3 deficiency (also can happen with B6 -INH- or tryptophan deficiency - Hartnup = decreased absorbtion, carcinoid = increased consumption - without B3 in diet)
Rigidity, resting tremor, and bradykinesia
Triad assoc with Parkinson's
Dog or cat bite bug
Pasteurella multocida
Chest pain with pericardial rub/effusion and persistent fever a few weeks post MI
Dressler's syndrome = Autoimmune fibrinous percarditis weeks after a MI
Dublin Johnson Syndrome
Congenital Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia due to defective liver excretion (black liver)
X-linked deletion of dystrophin
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Eburnation
Polished, ivory like bone associated with Osteoarthritis
Infant with rocker-bottom feet, low set ears, small jaw, clenched hands, heart disease (structural defect), and decreased materal alphaFetal Protein
Edward's syndrome = Trisomy 18
Eisenmenger's complex
Late cyanosis due to the conversion of a left to right shunt to a right to left shunt
Elastic skin with joint hypermobility
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
Neonate with arm paralysis after a difficult birth
Erb-Duchenne palsy = Superior trunk injury (C5+6 = "waiter's tip" arm)
Expanding bull's eye rash
Erythema Chronicum Migrans associated with Lyme disease
Short stature, increased incidence of tumors and leukemia (AML) and aplastic anemia
Fanconi's anemia = Genetically inherited aplastic anemia
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Fanconi's Syndrome = Proximal tubular reabsorbtion defect = increased loss of amino acids and such. Assoc with expired tetracycline or heavy metal poisoning
Depression
Hypothyroidism or hyperparathyroidism
Yellow CSF
Xanthochromia = older subarachnoid hemorrhage
The "f"'s of acute cholecystitis (risk factors)
fat, female, fourty, fertile
Triglyceride accumulation in liver vacuoles
Fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) causes = Alcoholism, tylenol, HIV drugs (stavudine, didanosine), and metabolic syndrome
Iron containing nodules in alveolar septum (prussian blue stain)
Ferruginous bodies due to Asbestosis
Colon polyps + osteomas and soft tissue tumors + supernumerary/impacted teeth
Gardner's syndrome (they're just "growing" tumors everywhere)
Small granulomatous lesions in the lungs that may be calcified
Gohn focus in primary TB (Gohn complex = focus + hilar node involvement)
Hepatosplenomegly, osteoporosis, aseptic femoral necrosis, and neurologic symptoms
Gaucher's disease = Glucocerebrosidase deficiency (associated with crinkled tissue paper cytoplasm)
Gilbert's syndrome
benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia due to decreased UDP-glucuronyl transferase or bilirubin uptake. Seen in 2% of the population. Stress related - responds to phenobarbital
Mucosal bleeding with prolonged bleeding time but normal PT/PTT
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia = Defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GPIIb/IIIa
Goodpasture's syndrome
Autoantibodies against alveolar and glomerular basement membrane proteins
Child uses arms to stand up from a squat due to lack of strength in the leg muscles
Gowers' maneuver = Duchenne's patients
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that's ascending following a GI/URI infection
Guillian-Barre syndrome = Idiopathic polyneuritis associated with ascending paralysis with intact sensory and elevated CSF protein with normal cell count (albuminocytologic dissociation)
"hair on end" x ray
Marrow hyperplasia seen with beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia due to extramedullary hematopoesis
Hand-Schuller-Christian disease
Chronic progressive histiocytosis
Increase in HbF
Seen with Thalassemia major
Elevated hCG
Pregnancy, hydatidiform mole, non-semanoma testicular germ cell tumor, choriocarcinoma
Herberden's nodes
Osteophytic DIP swelling due to osteoarthritis
Small, round RBC inclusions
Heinz bodies = Denatured hemoglobin seen in G6PD deficiency, alpha thalassemia (beta chain precipitation), or chronic liver disease
Henoch-Schonlein purpura
Hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with hemorrhagic urticaria (lower extremety), URI, IgA nephropathy, and arthralgia
Hertophil antibodies
Cross reactive antibodies seen with infectious mononucleosis (EBV) (and syphilis although then it's called RPR)
High-output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy) with edema and polyneuropathy
Wet Beriberi due to a vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency
HLA-B27
"PAIR" = psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel disease arthritis, and reiter's syndrome
HLA-DR3/4
DM I
Radial arrangement of tumor cells around central fibril tangle
Homer-wright rosettes = adrenal neuroblastoma, CNS medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma, or Ewing's sarcoma
Honey-comb lung on xray
Interstitial fibrosis seen with amiodarone, bleomycin, busulfan, phenytoin, and nitrofurantoin
Horner's syndrome
Ptosis, myosis, and anhidrosis due to an interuption in cervical sympathetics
Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs
Howell-Jolly bodies seen in splenectomy pts (removed due to sickle cell, ITP, hereditary spherocytosis, and trauma)
chorea (random, uncontrollable jerky movements), caudate degeneration, and dementia
Huntington's disease = AD CAG repeat on chromosome 4, will see decreased ACh and GABA
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, and hyperdocility
Milad. (minus the docile part but I really don't understand how someone could be hypersexual and exploring the environment with their mouth and still be "docile" like those with Kulver-Bucy = bilateral amygdala lesions)
Skin hyperpigmentation
Primary adrenal insufficiency (Addisons - due to increased ACTH leading to increased MSH)
Hypersegmented PMNs
Macrocytic anemia due to B12 or folate deficiency
Hypertension + hypokalemia
Conns Syndrome (primary increase in aldosterone = metabolic alkalosis and decreased renin levels)
Hypochromic microcytosis
Fe def anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia, and anemia of chronic disease
Increased alphaFetal Protein in amnion/mother
Anencephaly, spina bifida/neural tube defects, omphalocele, gastroschesis
Increased serum uric acid levels
Gout, lesch-Nyhan syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, loop/thiazide diuretics
Small, nontender, erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Janeway lesions seen with endocarditis
h/a, myalgias, skin lesions, fever following antibiotic tx for syphillis
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction: Overaggressive treatment = rapid lysis = increased treponemal ag and endotoxin
Recurrent colds, unusual eczema, and high serum IgE
Job's syndrome = Hyper IgE = abnormalities in PMN chemotaxis = cold abcesses (and these pts are also ugly with a doughy face)
visualized as dark papular lesions on skin/mucous membranes
Kaposi's Sarcoma = HHV-8 virus causing vascular proliferation in AIDs pts
chronic bronchiectasis and sinusitis, sterility, and dexrocardia (situs inversus)
Kartagener's syndrome = Dynein defect = dysfunctional cilia
Green-yellow pigment in corneal-scleral margin
Kayser-Fleischer rings due to copper deposition in Wilson's disease
Keratin pearls
Squamous cell carcinoma
Nodular hyaline deposits in the glomeruli
Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules = Diabetic nephropathy
Kluver-Bucy syndrome
bilateral amygdala lesions = hyperphagia, hyperorality, hypersexuality, and hyperdocility
Dysplastic Squamous cervical cells with perinuclear cytoplasmic clearing and hyperchromasia
Koilocytes seen in HPV
Small, irregular red spots with blue-white centers seen on the buccal or lingual mucosa
Koplik spots = measles
Krukenberg tumor
Bilateral ovarian tumors (often with signet ring cells) due to metastasis from a gastric adenocarcinoma
Deep, labored breathing with hyperventilation
Kussmaul hyperpnea = diabetic ketoacidosis as they try to blow off CO2
Lens dislocation + aortic dissection + joint hyperflexibility
Marfan's syndrome (fibrilin deficit). Lens dislocation also seen in homocysteinuria. Marfanoid habitus also seen with MEN IIb
Boy with gout, mental retardation and self-mutilating behavior
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome = HGPRT deficiency
intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions in neurons
Lewy bodies seen with Parkinson's
Libman-Sacks disease
Endocarditis associated with SLE
Thrombi made of white/red layers
Lines of Zahn - layers of alternating fibrin and RBC seen with artial thrombi
Lisch nodules
Pigmented hamartomas of the iris seen with neurofibromatosis type I (vonRecklinghausen's disease)
Low serum ciruloplasmin
Wilson's disease (due to increased copper)
Lucid interval after trauma
Seen with epidural hematoma (will see a biconcave lesion that respects suture lines on imaging)
"Lumpy bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on IF
Post-strep glomerulonephritis
Lytic bone lesions on x-ray
Multiple myeloma
Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cells
Mallory bodies seen in alcoholic liver disease (versus eosinophilic cells, councilman)
Mallory-Weiss syndrome
tears at the gastroesophageal junction due to severe retching presenting with hematemesis (often assoc with bulemia or alcoholism)
Borehaave's syndrome
Complete rupture of the esophagus due to severe retching
Chronic exercise intolerance with cramping, weakness, and myoglobinuria
McArdle's Disease = Muscle phosphorylase deficiency (glycogen storage disease)
McBurney's sign
Rebound tenderness 2/3 from umbilical to iliac spine due to appendicitis
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy and horizontal diploplia
MLF syndrome (intranuclear opthalmoplegia) = Weak adduction and nystagmus on abduction with lateral gaze seen in pts with Multiple sclerosis (if bilateral, stroke pts if unilateral)
Monoclonal antibody spike
M protein seen with Multiple myeloma (IgG/IgA), Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (IgM), or monocolonal gammopathy of undertermined significance
Cutaneous/dermal edema due to increased CT elements
Myxedema seen in hypothyroidism or Grave's disease
Necrotizing vasculitis in the lungs + necrotizing glomerulonephritis
Wegner's and Goodpasture's diseases (the first of which can also involve the upper airway)
Needle-shaped negatively bifringent crystals
Uric acid crystals seen in gout
Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells
Negri bodies seen in Rabies (lyssavirus)
Nephritis + hearing loss + cataracts
Alport's syndrome
Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of protein tau
Neurofibrillary tangles = Alzheimer's disease
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegly, neurodegeneration
Niemann-Pick Disease = Sphingomyelinase deficiency (can see cherry red spot on macula during retinal exam)
No postpartum lactation
Sheehan's syndrome = pituitary infarction due to hypotension secondary to post-partum hemorrhage
Nutmeg liver
Congestion of the liver seen with CHF or budd-chiari
Occupational asbestos exposure
Malignant mesothelioma or bronchogenic carcinoma
Enlarged thyroid cells with ground glass nuclei
Orphan annie eye nucleus seen in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
Tender lesions on the pads of the fingers or toes
Osler's nodes seen with infective endocarditis
Enlarged cells with dark pink intranuclear inclusion bodies
Owl's eye inclusion seen in CMV
Eczematous dermatitis (red, itchy, swollen rash) of the nipple/areola
Paget's disease of the breast: representing underlying neoplasm
Bone pain and enlargement with arthritis
Paget's disease of the bone (osteitis deformans) = Increased osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity
Painless jaundice
Common bile duct abstruction caused by pancreatic cancer in the head of the pancreas (also see anemia and painless gallbladder enlargement - Courvoisier's gallbladder)
Palpable purpura on legs and buttocks
Henoch-Schonlein purpura (hypersensitivity vasculitis due to IgA complex deposition = nephritis and abdominal pain)
Pancoast's tumor
Apical bronchogenic tumor that compresses the cervical sympathetic ganglion = Horner's syndrome (unilateral facial ptosis, miosis and anhydrosis)
Pannus
granulation tissue from proliferating fibroblasts and inflamm cells that is eroding cartilage in RA
Akinesia, postural instability, resting tremor, and rigidity
Nigrostriatal dopamine depletion = Parkinson's Disease
Periosteal elevation on xray
Codman's Triangle seen with pyogenic ostomyelitis and osteosarcoma
Hamartomatous GI polyps with hyperpigmentation of the hands, feet, and mouth
Peutz-Jegher's syndrome = can have bowel obstruction and increased risk of colon cancer
Peyronie's disease
Penile fibrosis (usually dorsal-lateral palpable induration)
Philadelphia Chromosome
9-22 translocation = bcr-abl fusion gene seen in CML and occasionally ALL
cytoplasmic filamentous spherical inclusions in neurons that stain with silver and aren't seen after death
Pick bodies (made of tau). Assoc with Pick's disease.
Pick's disease
Progressive dementia with frontotemporal lobe atrophy with early onset personality changes (presentation similar to alzheimers)
Pink puffer with dyspnea and hyperventilation
Emphysema (panacinar caused by alpha1antitrypsin deficiency, centroacinar caused by smoking)
Protruding tongue
Cretinism, amyloidosis, acromegly
Myocyte disarray
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Esophageal webs (dysphagia) and glossitis with iron deficiency anemia
Plummer-Vinson Syndrome (may progress to squamous cell carcinoma)
Podagra
Gout in the MP joint of hallux
Podocyte fusion
Minimal change disease
Polyneuropathy, cardiac pathology, and edema
Wet Beriberi (B1 deficiency)
Polyneuropathy preceeded by a GI or respiratory infection
Guillain Barre syndrome
cardiomegly + exercise intolerance (kids) or respiratory failure + restrictive cardiomyopathy (adults)
Pompe's Disease = Lysosomal glucosidase deficiency
Port-wine stain
nevus flammus hemangioma
Positive anterior drawer sign
ACL injury
Pott's Disease
Vertebral tuberculosis
Pseudopalasading serpentine tumor cell arrangement
Glioblastoma multiforme = most common and aggressive adult brain cancer
Pseudorosetes
Ewing's sarcoma, adrenal neuroblastoma, and medulloblastoma
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Horner's Syndrome: pancoast tumor
Rash on palms and soles
Secondary syphilis or Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever or hand-foot-and-mouth disease (coxsackie virus)
Recurrect vasospasms in the extremities = painful, cold, and pale fingers/toes
Raynaud's syndrome. Also assoc with Buerger's or CREST
RBC casts in urine
Acute GN
Recurrent pulmonary pseudomonas and s.aureus infections
Cystic Fibrosis = fat soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs
Red urine in the morning
Paroxysmal noctural hemoglobinuria = CD 55/59 defect. Dx with ham's test
Giant B cell with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owl's eyes")
Reed Sternberg cells: Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Increased Reid Index
= thick bronchial mucosal layer = Chronic Bronchitis
Rectangular, crystal-like inclusions in leydig cells
Reinke crystals - Leydig cell tumors (testosterone secreting = precocious puberty or hirutism)
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis
Reiter's Syndrome - post GU/GI infection (normally in a male)
Renal cell carcinoma, cavernous hemangioblastomas or angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
von Hippel-Lindau disease = dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation
renal epithelial casts in urine
Acute toxic or viral nephrosis
Rhomboid crystals that are positively bifringent
Pseudogout (yellow crystals with perpendicular light)
Rib notching
coarctation of the aorta
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Roth spots = bacterial endocarditis
Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Rotor's syndrome
Stacks of RBCs
Rouleaux formation - Multiple myeloma
S3 heart sound
L to R shunt (VSD, PDA, ASD), mitral regurg, LV failure (CHF) or post MI or dilated cardiomyopathy
Nevus flammus in the trigeminal opthalamic + Seizures, metal retardation, hemiplegia and glaucoma
Sturge-Weber
S4 heart sound
Aortic stenosis, hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells
Schiller-Duval bodies: Yolk sac tumor
Extracellular amyloid deposition in grey matter of brain
Senile plaques: Alzheimer's disease
Generalized exfoliative erythroderma with LAD, HSM, and atypical T cells
Sezary syndrome = Cutaneous T cell Lymphoma or Mycosis fungoides
Absence of lactation after delivery
Sheehan's syndrome = postpartum pituitary necrosis
Cytokine dependent tissue damage leading to a hemorrhagic rash, vasculitis, and glomerular thrombosis during infection
Schwartzman reaction seen with Neisseria Meningitis (due to endotoxin)
Tumor with large cells with everything pushed to the edge of the cell due to mucin (looks like a ring)
Signet ring cells associated with gastric carcinoma or lobular carcinoma insitu of the breast
Single palmar crease
Simian crease = down's syndrome
Thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal tumors
Sipple's syndrome = MEN type IIa
Dry eyes, dry mouth, and arthritis
Sjogren's syndrome (elderly females with anti-Ro/La (SSA/SSB). Associated with B cell lymphoma)
Skip lesions of transmural inflammation
Crohn's
Slapped cheeks rash that spreads to body in kid with fever
Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease from parvo B19)
Infection that causes hydrops fetalis
Parvo virus
Smith antigen
SLE
Smudge cell
CLL
Soap bubble on x-ray
Giant cell tumor in bone (mostly seen in pts 20-40 y/o)
Spike and doam on EM
Membranous GN
Spitz nevus
Benign juvenile melanoma
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Endocarditis
Strawberry tongue
Scarlet fever or Kawasaki's or toxic shock syndrome
Strawberry cervix
Trich infections
Streaky ovaries, congenital heart disease, and horseshoe kidney
Turner's syndrome (45XO = webbed neck, short stature, lymphedema, no secondary sex characteristics and amenorrhea)
Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium radiograph
String sign: Crohn's
Subepithelial humps on EM
Post-strep GN
Suboccipital lymphadenopathy
Rubella
Sulfur granules
Actinomyces israelii
Swollen gums and mucosal bleeding, bruising, poor wound healing, spots on skin, anemia
Scurvy (vit C/ascorbic acid deficiency) - necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine I collagen synthesis
Crescendo-Decrescendo systolic ejection murmur
aortic valve stenosis
t(8;14)
Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
t(9;22)
Philadelphia chromosome (bcr-abl) = CML
t(14;18)
Follicular lymphoma (bcl-2 activation)
Locomotor ataxia secondary to impaired proprioception due to degeneration of dorsal column nerves
Tabes dorsalis in tertiary syphilis
Tendon xanthomas
Familial hypercholesterolemia = absence of LDL receptors
Sacroilitis
Ankylosing Spondylitis
t(11;22)
Ewing's sarcoma
Thumb sign on xray
Epiglottitis from HiB
thyroidazation of kidney (dilated tubules filled with colloid cysts)
chronic bacterial pyelonephritis
Urate crystals surrounded by inflammation
Tophi of gout
"tram track" appearance on LM
membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
hypercoagulability = Migratory DVTs and vasculitis (thrombophlebitis)
Trousseau's sign of visceral cancer or pancreatic or lung adenocarcinoma
Carpal spasm when a BP cuff is applied
Trousseau's sign of hypocalcemia
Left supraclavicular node enlargement and firmness
Virchow's node - stomach/visceral cancer metastases
Virchow's triad of clotting?
blood stasis, endothelial damage and hypercoagulability = pulm embolism, dvt, etc
Freckles under the arms with areas of hyperpigmentation
von Recklinghausen's disease (neurofibromatosis)
Brown tumor of bone (hemosiderin coloring osteolytic cysts)
von Recklinghausen's disease of bone (osteitis fibrosa cystica) or hyperparathyroidism
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
Adrenal hemorrhage due to meningococcemia, DIC, and shock
Waxy casts in urine with low urine flow
chronic end stage renal disease
WBC casts in urine
pyelonephritis
WBCs in urine
acute cystitis versus prostitis versus pyelonephritis
Pancreatic, pituitary, and parathyroid tumors
Wermer's syndrome = MEN type I
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, and adenopathy
Whipple's disease = Malabsorbtion due to tropheryma whippelii
Wilson's disease
Copper accumulation leading to hepatolenticular degeneration
"wire loop" appearance on LM
lupus nephropathy
"worst headache of my life"
subarachnoid hemorrage - mostly due to berry aneurysm rupture (assoc with adult polycystic kidney disease, ehlers-danlos and marfans)
xanthochromia on csf
yellowing due to bilirubin build up from few days old subarachnoid hemorrhage
Xerostomia + arthritis + keratoconjunctivitis sicca
Sjogren's syndrome (elderly females with anti-Ro/La (SSA/SSB). Associated with B cell lymphoma)
Zenker's diverticulum
Upper GI diverticulum
gastrin secreting tumor assoc with ulcers
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Bitemporal visual field defect
pituitary adenoma vs craniopharyngioma vs anterior communicating artery aneurysm
Back pain, fever, night sweats, and weight loss
pott's disease (vertebral TB)
Dog/cat bite = infection
pasturella multocida
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
B symptoms of lymphoma
Swollen hard and painful finger joints
Osteoarthritis due to repeated mechanical trauma
anti-topoisomerase Ab
Diffuse systemic scleroderma
Desquamated epithelial casts in sputum
Curschmann's spirals (whorled mucous plugs in bronchial asthma)
Onion skinning periosteal reaction
Ewing's sarcoma (malignant round cell tumor)
Serous/bloody nipple discharge
Intraductal papilloma