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60 Cards in this Set

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sociology perspective
understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
conflict theorists- house work
struggle for scarce resources
-most women do most of house work even if they work
-though some men believe they do half
-major theme of conflict theorists struggle of house work
culture
learned and shared ways of believing and doing including language, beliefs, values, norms, material objects
playing dumb
Arlie Hoschild- strategy of men playing dumb on certain tasks
ethnocentrism
using one's own ways of doing things as a yardstick to measure other cultures

positive- in-group loyalties
laid off husbands and housework
if men get laid off they do less housework
Auguste Compte
-founder of sociology
-created term
-created positivism
cohabitation
adults living together in a sexual relationship without being married
-in u.s. 10 times
-41% of u.s. parents have
language
primary way of which people communicate. It allows culture to develop
social change
alteration of culture and societies over time
Karl Marx
created class conflict
-conflict between rich and working class
4 social revolutions
1. domestication of plants and animals which allowed hunting and gathering societies to develop into horticultural and pastoral societies
2. invention of the plow brought about 2nd social revolution, from which agricultural societies emerged
3.invention of the steam engine brought us into the industrial revolution
4.invention of microchip as we are witnessing the 4th social revolution
G-7,G-8
inner groups in top countries that make important decisions
-U.S., Japan, Germany, Italy, France, Great Britian, Canada
-G-8 include Russia
-Now G-20
Hypothesis
statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory
cyclical theory
civilizations are born, exuberant youth, maturity, decline, and death
random sample
sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study
Toynbee's beliefs
all civilization reach peak than die
-believe u.s. in decline
folkways
norms that are not strictly enforced

ie. picking your nose
dialectic process
-Karl Marx viewed each ruling group sows the seeds of its own destruction
-thesis-some current arrangement of power
-antithesis-contradiction
-synthesis-new arrangement of power
independent variables
factor that causes change in experiment
ie. therapy
dependent variables
factor that is changed by an independent variable
ie. gets changed
invention
combining existing elements and materials to form new ones
ie.computers and capitalism
discovery
new way of seeing reality
ie. Colombus found new world and discovered worlds not flat
diffusion
spread of an invention or discovery from one area to another
ie. aborigines
freud's id, ego, superego
id- inborn self-centered desires
ego- balances id+superego
superego-conscience
telemedicine
operation through use of machine
ie. if doctor examine heart and lungs via cyber optic cables and over 100 miles away this patient is in use of telemedicine
information super highway
processing sociological issue of information super highway whether global communication increase national and global inequalities
achieved status
voluntary, you achieve it- student, spouse, lawyer (positive or negative), friend
ascribed status
involuntary, you cannot choose it, you inherit it: race, ethnicity, sex, social class of your parents
social movements
large numbers of people who organize to promote-or resist social change
ie. civil rights movement
status
the position that someones occupy
role
behaviors,obligations, privilege's, attached a status
types of social movement
1.Alternative
2.redemptive
3.reformative
4.transformative
alternative social movement
target individuals and seek to only alter some specific behavior
ie. MADD
redemptive social movement
also target individuals but the aim is for total change
ie. religious fanatic
reformative social movements
target society and seek to reform some specific aspect of society
transformative social movements
target society seek to transform the social order itself
ie. revolution
role strain
when the same role presents inherit conflict
role conflict
when what is expected of us in one role is incompatible with what is expected in another role
mass media and social movement
use of public opinion and propaganda
-gate keepers to social movement
Thomas Theorem
if people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences
primary groups
1st group in life- intimate, face to face interaction- family, good friends
secondary group
larger, more anonymous, formal,impersonal, -college class, APA, democratic party, workplace employees. society could not function without them
group dynamics
how groups affect us and how we affect groups
dyad
smallest possible groups, 2 people, most intense and intimate, most unstable
triad
group of 3
deviance
-any violation of norms
-is relative
-j walking to murder
stigma
characteristics that discredit people including violations in norms of ability as well as violations of norms of appearance. Also involuntary memberships
recidivism rate
percentage of people who are rearrested 85-95 %
wealth
consists of property and income
-primary social class
majority of the poor
white Americans
prejudice
attitude that promotes discrimination- a prejudging of some sort
institutional discrimination
how discrimination is woven into the fabric of society
ie.home mortgages- race and ethnicity
women as minority groups
because of physical factors
-women's biology taking care of babies, men have longer absence
domestic violence
power and control
date rape
-most goes unreported
-happens to couples they known for years
-jury's thought that if women knew accused, she was not raped
graying of America
increasing population of older people in u.s. population
-13% 65 or older
dependency ratio
number of workers who collect social security compared with the number of workers who contribute to it
-number of workers to support one retiree
-16/1
exogamy
societal norm that specifies that people must marry outside group
-exit
ie. salu society exogamous
endogamy
societal norm that specifies that people should marry within their own group