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71 Cards in this Set

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Party-in-the electorate

ordinary citizens who identify with the party




Sig-biased opinions of party view

Party Identification

voter affiliation with a political party




Sig- can see clear trends over time people are increasingly independent

public opinion

the collective attitudes and beliefs of individuals on one or more issues




sig- can influence what politicians do and say; laws passed, important for proper functioning of government (will of the people)

benchmark polls

initial poll on a candidate and issues on which campaign strategy is based and against which later polls are compared




sig- instrumental for campaign strategy

Party activists

party faithful, the rank and file members who actually carry out the parties electioning




sig- goes beyond simply voting, are the parties lifeblood, tend to be on extreme end of parties; have huge influence on elections

party base

members of a political party who consistently vote for that parties candidates




sig- not enough to win presidential election causing tug of war between party ideology and independents

soft money

unregulated campaign contributions by individuals, groups, or parties that promote general election activities but do not directly support individual candidates




sig- candidates weren't allowed to participate in how money was spent on their elections but still benefited

governing

activities directed toward controlling the distribution of political resources by providing executive and legislative leadership, enacting agendas, mobilizing support, and building coalition




sig- can ad coherence to fragmented separation of powers and federalism

party discipline

ability of party leaders to bring party members in the legislature into line with the part program




sig-reflects diversity within parties when divided, when together can accomplish policy goals

tracking polls

ongoing series of surveys that follow changes in public opinion over time




sig- shows trends and changes in voters preferences and perceptions. shows where country is heading

exit polls

election related questions asked of voters right after they vote




sig- helps predictions for winners early, as well as issue preferences, evaluation of candidates and talking points for media

rational ignorance

state of being uniformed about politics because of the cost in time and energy




sig- citizens have to use multiple strategies to stay informed and could use sources similar to them that creates bias. also, uniformed decisions could affect elections negatively

party machines

mass based party systems in which parties provided services and resources to voters in exchange for votes




sig- could be used to get voters jobs or help them out financially. gave more powers to campaign

party bosses

party leaders, usually in an urban district who exercised tight control over electioneering and patronage




sig- chose candidates for election had candidates pledge loyalty to party bosses and his policies to win approval to run for reelection

patronage

system in which successful party candidates reward supporters with jobs ad favors




sig- ensured loyalty to party bosses as well as keeping influence

nominating convention

formal party gathering to choose candidates




sig- delegates vote for a candidate the summer before election. Brings together the party faithful in solidarity

opinion leaders

people who know more about certain topics than we do and whose advice we trust, seek, and follow




sig- we use people like us who we trust, but can also use biased opinions to influence or reinforce our beliefs

on-line processing

the ability to receive and evaluate info as events happen, allowing us to remember our evaluation even if we have forgotten the specific events that caused it




sig- can like/dislike someone for seemingly no reason even if there is one, it cant quite be identified

political gridlock

the stalemate that occurs when political rivals, especially parties, refuse to budge from their positions to achieve a compromise in the public interest




sig- can cause nothing to get done. some prefer their own party ideas over real progress and sensible solutions

political party

a group of citizens united by ideology and seeking control of the government in order to promote their ideas and policies




sig- can control the senate, congress, or executive branch and if popular enough all 3. this would let them push agendas. these parties create gaps and tangible differences between citizens

partisanship

loyalty to a political cause or a party




sig- can be seen as more to benefit a party instead of the public, others say it is a tool in a policy tug of war to keep politicians honest.

political opinion polls

scientific efforts to estimate what an entire group thinks about an issue by asking a smaller sample of the group for its opinion




sig- can influence what politicians do and say, laws passed, important for peoples voice

astroturf lobbying

indirect lobbying efforts that manipulate or create public sentiment 'astroturf' being artificial grassroots




sig- often pushes interests of big businesses and is not a genuine concern of everyday citizens

grassroots lobbying

indirect lobbying efforts that spring from widespread public concern




sig- genuine movement that shows power through sheer numbers and voice of the people. proves democracy is alive today



social protest

public activities designed to bring attention to political causes, usually generated by those without access to conventional means of expressing their views




sig- gives voice to the people through different avenues



527 groups

groups that mobilize voters with issue advocacy advertisements on tv and radio may not directly advocate the election or defeat of a particular candidate




sig-can affect elections without endorsing candidates

issue advocacy ads

advertisements that support issues or candidates without telling constituents how to vote




sig-raise public awareness of their interests

revolving door

the tendency of public officials, journalists, and lobbyists to move between public and private sector




sig- can blur the lines of public and private businesses. lets those who know the system work the system to their interest advantage, can breed corruption


indirect lobbying

attempts to influence government policy makers by encouraging the general public to put pressure on them




sig- uses public support to push their agenda

direct lobbying

direct interaction with public officials for the purpose of influence policy decisions

public interest groups

groups that organize to influence government to produce collective goods or services that benifits the general public

equal opportunity interest groups

groups that organize to promote the civil and economic rights of under-represented or disadvantaged groups

economic interest groups

groups that organize to influence government policies for the economic benefit of their members

expressive benifits

selective incentives that derive from the opportunity to express values and beliefs and to be committed to a greater cause

solidary benifits

selective incentives related to the group interaction and bonding among group members

material benifits

selective incentives in the form of tangible rewards

selective incentives

benefits that are available only to group members as an inducement to get them to join

collective good

a good or service that, by its very nature, cannot be denied to anyone who wants to consume it

ree rider problem

the difficulty groups face in recruiting when potential members can gain the benefits of the groups actions whether they join or not

interest groups entrepreneurs

effective group leaders who are likely to have organized the group and can effectively promote its interests among members and the public

interest group

an organization of individuals who share a common political goal and unite for the purpose of influencing government decisions

Political action Committees


(pacs)

the fundraising arms of interest groups

lobbying

group activities aimed at persuading policy makers to support the groups position

faction

a group of citizens united by some common passion or interest and opposed to the rights of other citizens or to the interests of the whole community

party-in-government

members of the party who have been elected to serve in the government




sig- can better push their parties or public interest

party organization

the official structure that conducts the political business of parties




sig- run the parties day to day. organize fundraisers, run campaigns, registered and mobilize voters, and run the caucus and parties



open primaries

primary elections in which eligible voters dont need to be registered party members




sig- can weaken political parties


ex: rush limbaughs 'operation chaos'

weighting

adjustments to surveys during analysis so that selected demographics groups reflect their values in the population, usually as measured by census




sig- keep sample bias in check by using ages of poll responders to match the countries age demographics

random sampiling

samples chosen in such a way that any members of the population being polled has an equal chance of being selected




sig- representative sample, can generally get a view of whole country accurately using this systematic method

sampling error

a number that indicated within what range the results of a poll are accurate




sig- the longer the sample, smaller the sampling error. can show who is in the lead, within a certain % can be wrong

straw polls

polls that attempt to determine who is ahead in the political race




sig- tells where the political winds are blowing, can at times be inaccurate due to sample bias. although usually correct. subject to last minute change.

sample bias

effect of having a sample that does not represent all segments of the population




sig- can give misleading idea of public opinion

sample

portion of a population that is selected to participate in a poll




sig- if scientifically chosen to represent whole population, it can show what the entire country thinks

marriage gap

the tendency for married people to hold political opinions that differ from those of people who have never been married




sig- 'non married' tend to be more liberal, while marrieds tend to be more conservative and traditional

closed primaries

primary elections in which only registered party members may vote




sig- gives more power to party memebers

electioneering

the process of getting a person elected to public office




sig- can be hard to find candidates against incumbents, these politicians can affect local or national government by pushing their parties

responsible party model

party government when four conditions are met: 1.clear choice of ideologies


2.candidates pledged to implement ideas


3. party held accountable by voters


4. party control over voters




sig- enhances democracy as well as strengthens it, gives clear alternatives and holds parties responsible for promises



conflict extension

a theory of a party change that sees new issues reinforcing rather than supplanting existing party differences




sig- drives a bigger divide within parties causing severe factions, can potentially alienate party loyalists

dealignment

a trend among voters to identify themselves as independents rather than members of a majority party



sig- an increasing trend, that causes politicians to walk a tight rope on policy appealing to general voters as well as party members

realignment

a substantial and long term shift in party allegiance by individuals and groups, usually resulting in a change in policy discretion




sig- can help show trends in policy and swing power balance

two-step flow of info

the process by which citizens take their political cues from more well informed opinion leaders




sig- we use people like us who we trust, but can also use their biased opinions to influence or reinforce our beliefs

gender gap

the tendency of men and women to differ in their views on some issues




sig: women vote more liberal than their increasingly more conservative counter part men

political generation

groups of citizens whos political views have been shaped by common events in their youth




sig- views tend to stay to era of when they came of political age with younger generation replacing older generation as they die off (generational replacement)

critical election

an election signaling a significant change in popular allegiance from one party to another




sig- marks end of a party era, usually shows discontent of people and gives power to previous minority

party eras

extended periods of relative political stability in which one party tends to control both the presidency and congress




sig- can push presidents agenda ahead and helps avoid gridlock



party primary

nomination of party candidates by registered party members rather than party bosses




sig- filled jobs based off merit, diluted or eliminated party bosses and helped prevent corruption

spiral of silence

the process by which a majority opinion becomes exaggerated because minorities do not feel comfortable speaking out in opposition




sig- embolden advocates of majority to speak more confidently, bare majority can become overwhelmingly voice of the group

Wayne Pacelle

CEO humane society

James Carville

former lawyer, now political consultant and CNN contributor

Nate Silver

PECOTA, poker player turned number/political analyst

David Frum

Waiter, worked for George W. Bush as a speech writer