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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

QC system

minimize analytic errors

QA

all the systemic action necessary to produce adequate patient care

Qualitative

+/-

Quantitative

actual number

Mean, Median, Mode Range

Gaussian Curve/Bell Curve

CV

The smaller the CV the more precise; less then 5% is good

The smaller the CV the more precise; less then 5% is good

Accuracy

agrees with the true value

Precision

agreement between replicate measurements

Random Error

related to Precision

Systemic error

related to accuracy; effects all samples

Bias

the amount by which an analysis varies from the correct result

Reference interval

range that includes 95% of a healthy population

Evaluation studies


  • analysis of a series of standards determines linear range
  • replicate samples measures imprecision

Interference studies

  • Measures errors caused by a substance other than the analyte

  • Hemoglobin, bilirubin, lipids

  • If effect is observed concentration should be lowered

Comparative method

may be the reference method

Linear regression y-axis

test method

Linear regression x-axis

reference

Linear regression slope

constant systemic error

Linear regression measures

constant systematic error:


The constant difference between the test method and the comparative method are proportional to analyte concentration

Random Error

measure by the standard error of the estimate

Proportional error

differences between the test method and the comparative method are proportional to analyte concentration

1


2s

Exceeds +/- 2SD- Warning rule

1


3S

Exceeds the mean by +/- 3DS


Random error

2


2S

exceeds the same mean either by +2 or =2


Systemic error

R


4S

one point +2SD and -2SD form the other


Random error

4


1S

Four exceed the mean by either =/+1SD around the mean


systemic error

10


X

10 points fall on one side of the mean

Westgard rules: random error

13S, R4s

Westgard rules: systemic error

2 4 10


2s 1S x

Diagnostic specificity

  • frequency of negative test in the absence of the disease
  • TN/TN+FPX100

Diagnostic sensitivity


  • Probability of obtaining a positive test result for a patient with a given disease
  • TP/TP+FNX100

Positive Predictive Value

TP


------ X100


TP+FP

Negative Predictive Value

TN


---------- X 100


TN+FN

Management styles

  • Authoritarian

  • Democractic

  • Consensus

  • Laissez-Faire

Theory X

employees are lazy, motivated by money: authoritarian

Theory Y

employees are creative and willing to put talent to use: participative

Hertzberrg Theory


  • Hygiene factor (setting)
  • Motivators (personal satisfier)

Work teams

  • forming
  • storming
  • norming
  • performing

Fixed cost

don't change if the volume changes

Variable cost

do change with workload

Total cost

Fixed+variable

Direct cost

test specific cost

Indirect cost

expenditures after direct costs have been made

Number of tests to break even (T)=

Fixed cost


-------------------


A-V


A: average revenue of the lab


V: variable cost

Revenue

F (total fixed cost)


CM




CM=(A-V)/A