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161 Cards in this Set

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What blood type has the most protein antigens in it?

AB positive

Carbon-14 dating is a method of finding the -?- age of fossils less than 60,000 years old

Absolute

The fancy name for the disorder caused by a dominant gene which results in little people.

Achondroplasia

Lamarck believed that evolution was the result of -?- traits being passed on.

Acquired

Darwin said species changed as they -?- to their environments.

Adapted

Guanine and -?- are both purines.

Adenine

The odds of having a Down syndrome child goes up as the -?- of a man goes up.

Age of the wife

Darwin's theory of evolution attributed -?- life on earth to a common ancestor.

All

All organisms have two -?- for any given gene.

Alleles

-? structures look the same but evolved from different organs.

Analogous

The various forms of a gene are called -?-

Alleles

During which phase of mitosis do the sister chromatids get pulled apart?

Anaphase

Proving that different species have a common -?- proves evolution.

Ancestor

The theory of evolution includes the idea that fossils represent the -?- of species alive today.

Ancestors

Darwin came up with the theory of evolution as an -?- to the many questions raised by his observations.

Answer

Humans have been able to mold species to our liking through hundred of years of -?-

Artificial selection

Darwin noticed that people have been changing species for hundreds of years using -?- selection.

Artificial

-?- reproduction is fast, but produces no variation.

Asexual

What codon codes for methionine?

AUG

A karyotype shows two sex chromosomes and 44 -?-

Autosomes

Who discovered that gene were made of DNA in 1944?

Avery

The first forms of life on Earth were -?-

Bacteria

Cells in a girl often have a -?- because the cell deactivates one of the X chromosomes and pushes it to the side.

Barr body

In translation a sequence of -?- becomes a sequence of amino acids.

Bases

Darwin took a 3-year voyage on a ship named -?-

Beagle

If one type of ant won't mate with another species of ant because it does not smell right, then those two species are using a -?- isolation technique.

Behavioral

The graph of the phenotypes of a polygenic trait will usually be a -?- shaped curve.

Bell

Humans have -?- of bases in their DNA.

Billions

RNA is like a -?- of the parts of the master plan.

Blueprint

A chromosome is like a -?- in the master plan.

Book

A recessive gene on the X chromosome will be expressed most often in -?-

Boys

It is a fact that evolution -?- occur.

Can

Spiders are -?-, using their silk to make webs and catch prey."

Carnivores

According to figure 10-1 all snails have the same size -?-

Cells

The -?- era began about 65 million years ago

Cenozoic

How naturally created organic chemicals could have formed into living -?- is still a mystery to science.

Cells

A -?- is a carnivorous arthropod with 2 legs per segment

Centipede

The thing in the middle of a chromosome that holds the chromatids together is called a -?-

Centromere

What is the one thing that all Echinoderms lack?

Cephalization

What part of a crayfish is covered by the carapace.

Cephalothorax

Who discovered that the amount of C and G are always the same in samples of DNA?

Chargaff

The Miller and Urey experiments showed how some organic -?- could be made by natural processes.

Chemicals

Each half of a chromosome is called a -?-

Chromatid

DNA that is not bundled up is called -?-

Chromatin

A -?- is a highly coiled DNA molecule visible only during cell division.

Chromosome

An identical twin born to a different mother at a different time would be a -?-

Clone

If the recombination frequency is low (don't recombine much) then the genes must be -?- on the chromosome.

Close together

DNA that is copied and bundled is called a -?-

Chromosome

Since people who are heterozygous for the sickle cell anemia gene have both round and crescent shaped cells, the normal and the sickle cell gene must be -?-

Codominant

What is the name of the insect order with the most species?

Coleoptera

Humans have 46 -

Chromosomes

If a bear looks gray because it has white hairs and black hairs then the black and white genes must be -?-

Codominant

True independent assortment rarely happens because the genes for traits are bundle together on -?-


Chromosomes

Overproduction causes the offspring to -?- for the limited resources.

Compete

Insects have -?- eyes

Compound

-?- inhibition cause normal cells to stop growing when they become crowded by neighboring cells.

Contact

Different species in similar environments will likely undergo -?- evolution.

Convergent

The -?- of a virus is made of DNA

Core

The process of -?- allow for novel combinations of genes to be created from a limited pool of chromosomes.

Crossing over

What are the newly discovered chemicals called that have a controlling influence over the cell cycle?

Cyclins

Approximately 1 out of 30 people is a carrier for the gene that causes -?-

Cystic fibrosis

,The final part of the cell cycle when the cell becomes two cells is called -?-

Cytokinesis

What is the complimentary base that goes with guanine in a DNA molecule?

Cytosine

The specialization of cells into different tissues is know as -?-

Differentiation

Meiosis produces new cells that are genetically -?- from each other and the cell they came from.

Different

There were a lot of -?- during the Mesozoic era.

Dinosaurs

-?- selection will cause the average of a polygenic trait to shift either higher or lower

Directional

"Natural -?- can cause evolution, even in the absence of natural selection."

Disasters

-?- selection will not change the average of a polygenic trait, but it will reduce the number of individuals that have the average."

Disruptive

A -?- is produced by analyzing the junk DNA between the genes.

DNA fingerprint

What enzyme reads/copies the DNA molecule during replication.

Dna polymerase

Lamarck did not realize that the only thing a parent passes on to its offspring is -?-

Dna

One reason really big cells cannot exist is that the -?- can only control so much.

Dna

What was transforming the nice bacteria into killer in Griffith's experiments?

Dna

Mendel believed the F1 generations of hybrids were all the same was due to the -?- of certain traits.

Dominance

Darwin figured that if the -?- could change as Hutton and Lyell suggested, them maybe life could change.

Earth

The similarities in -?- of different species can be explained by the theory of evolution.

Embryos

Where do human stems cells come from? TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY

Embryos

The only real difference between a clone and any other individual is the way the -?- was made.

Embryo

The -?- theory says that the organelles of the first eukaryotic cells were actually bacteria living symbiotically within other bacteria.

Endosymbiotic

Many traits are the results of an interaction between genetic factors and -?- factors.

Environmental

During natural selection it is the -?- that determines which organisms will survive.

Environment

Species on different continents look similar because they have been evolving in similar -?-.

Environments

If a population is not evolving then it must be in a state of genetic -?-

Equilibrium

Today -?- is defined as a change in the frequency of the alleles in a population.

Evolution

What do we call the parts of the DNA that actually code for proteins?

Exons

Echinoderms use -?- reproduction, and the parents never meet each other.

External

In Griffith's experiments a mixture of nice and killer bacteria would probably not harm the mice. truth or false

False

The chelicerae of spiders are basically -?-

Fangs

If the recombination frequency is high then the genes must be -?- on the chromosome.

Far apart

During -?- the DNA of two cells is joined into one.

Fertilization

There were a lot of -?- during the Paleozoic era

Fish

Natural selection only lets the -?- survive.

Fittest

Bugs have muscles that extend and -?- joints.

Flex

Darwin collected -?- and samples of the living species during his voyage.

Fossils

The most compelling evidence that evolution has occurred is the -?- record.

Fossil

The crustaceans usually have -?- antennae.

Four

A deletion of a base in DNA results in a -?- shift mutation that will affect many amino acids.

Frame

Who took the x-ray photos of DNA that helped Watson and Crick figure out the structure of DNA?

Franklin

The relative -?- of an allele gives its percentage of the gene pool for that trait.

Frequency

Darwin noticed that the climate of the different -?- islands varied along with the species that lived on them.

Galapagos

-?- is used to make DNA fingerprints and to separate DNA pieces based on their sizes.

Gel electrophoresis

The modern definition of a -?-, is a section of DNA that controls a particular trait.

Gene

,It takes many -?- for evolution to occur.

Generations

Differentiation is accomplished in humans by the control of the expression of -?-

Genes

DNA stores and transmits -?- information.

Genetic

-?- is evolution caused by accident rather than natural selection.

Genetic drift

What do we call a section of DNA that codes for a protein?

Gene

If one species does not mate with another species because a river separates them, then that is a -?- isolation technique.

Geographical

The -?- distribution of species can be explained by the fact that species on different continents descended from different ancestors.

Geographic

Crustaceans use -?- for respiration.

Gills

A dominant gene on the X chromosome will be expressed most often in -?-

Girls

What amino acid would be coded for by CAG on the RNA molecule?

Glutamine

Darwin believed in a slow and steady evolution know today as -?-

Gradualism

What color would the feathers be of a heterozygous bird be if they carry a black gene that has incomplete dominance over the white gene it carries?

Gray

What crayfish organ lies in the head near the brain?

Green glands

A genotype with two different alleles (such as in most hybrids) is said to be -?-

Heterozygous

According to figure 11-12, what color coat is recessive to all other colors accept albino?

Himilayan

What amino acid would GTA on the DNA eventually result in after transcription and translation?

Histidine

What are the protein molecules called that help DNA bundle in Eukaryotic cells?

Histones

-?- structures look different but evolved from the same organs.

Homologous

A genotype with two identical alleles is said to be -?-

Homozygous

What geologist who wrote a book in 1795 about how geological forces have shaped the Earth?

Hutton

-?- can produce new types of plants with traits that represent the best of both worlds.

Hybridization

If the male P-generation and the female P-generations were different, then the offspring would be -?-"

Hybrids

Mitosis produces new cells that are genetically -?- to each other and the cell they came from

Identical

It is possible but -?- to clone humans today.

Illegal

Although -?- can cause problem, it does maintain the desired characteristics in the offspring."

Inbreeding

The fossil record provides an -?- history of life on Earth.

Incomplete

There are always twice as many alleles as there are -?- in the population.

Individuals

What do we call the parts of the DNA that don't say anything

Introns

Usually a mutation of an -?- will not harm a person.

Intron

All arthropods have -?- appendages.

Jointed

A picture of your chromosomes during mitosis.

Karyotype

The malpighian tubules of insects have the same function as human -?-

Kidneys

If we ANALYZE DATA we find that the cells of the -?- take about 6 days to complete a life cycle.

Large intestine

The immature form of an insect that undergoes complete metamorphosis is called a -?-

Larva

A one point the entire Earth was one big ball of -?-

Lava

The job of a queen insect is to -?-

Lay eggs

Having an extra chromosome is usually a -?- condition

Lethal

A person can -?- without a Y chromosome, but not without an X chromosome

Live

The good thing about having half your blood cells sickle shaped is that you are less likely to get -?-

Malaria

The anterior pair of swimmerets are enlarged in the -?- crayfish.

Male

There were a few small -?- alive during the Mesozoic era.

Mammals

During artificial selection, it is -?- that decides who will live and die."

Man

Crustaceans usually have mouth parts called -?-

Mandibles

It is important to place -?- on the DNA of transformed organism so that we can tell them apart from the natural species

Markers

Most non-social insects communicate in order to find -?-

Mates

What process turns one normal diploid body cell into 4 haploid sex cells.

Meiosis

The -?- era had a mass extinctions before and after it.

Mesozoic

During which stage of mitosis do the chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell?

Metaphase

The evidence suggest that it was a -?- that caused the mass extinctions.

Meteorite

Hutton said that it took -?- of years for the Earth's features to form.

Millions

A -?- is a detritivore, with 4 legs per segment.

Millipede

-?- are used by creationists as proof that the fossil record does not show evolution.

Missing links

What process creates new skin cells to replace old ones?

Mitosis

During -?- an insects sheds its old exoskeleton

Molting

What nucleic acid tells the ribosome which amino acid comes next?

Mrna

-?- are a source of variation in an asexually reproducing population.

Mutations

Though out history it has been the introduction of random -?- that has provided the source of useful and novel characteristics along with genetic disorders.

Mutations

What do we call a change in the base sequence in the DNA?

Mutation