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96 Cards in this Set

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Definition: make hormones and oocytes; about the size of almonds

ovaries

Definition: extend from the uterus out to the ovaries with finger-like projections extending towards the ovaries

fallopian tubes

Definition: finger-like projections extending towards the ovaries

fimbriae

Definition: a pear-shaped muscular organ; continuous with the lumen of the fallopian tubes

uterus

Ovulated oocyte is drawn into the fallopian tubes by the movement of the ______ of the fallopian tubes.

ciliated epithelial lining

Definition: the base of the uterus that opens into the vagina

cervix

Definition: longitudinal folds cover the openings of the vagina and urethra

labia minora and labia majora

Definiton: small structure composed entirely of erectile tissue

clitoris

Definition: outer layer of connective tissue of the uterus

perimetrium

Definition: middle layer of muscle tissue of the uterus

myometrium

Definition: inner epithelial layer made up of stratified, squamous, non-keratinizing epithelium in the uterus

endometrium

Definiton: outermost layer of the endometrium

stratum basale

Definition: inner most layer of the uterus that cyclically grows thicker as a result of estrogen and progesterone stimulation; sheds at menstruation

stratum functionale

Germ cells in the ovary multiply during development and reach ______ oogonia by about __ months gestation. Majority undergo _____ prenatally. Remaining oogonia (the primary oocytes) begin _____ toward the end of gestation and arrest in______. There are about ____ primary oocytes in the ovaries of a newborn girl. Only about ____ primary oocytes will be ovulated during a woman’s reproductive years and the rest will undergo _____.

6-7 million


5


apoptosis


meiosis


prophase I of the first meiotic division


2 million


400


apoptosis

Definition: hollow ball of cells that encloses a oocyte

ovarian follicle

Definition: hollow ball of cells that encloses a primary oocyte

primary follicle

In response to ____ stimulation, some of the oocytes and follicles grow larger. Follicular cells divide to produce multiple layers of _____ thatsurround the oocyte and fill the follicle.

FSH


granulosa cells



Someof the primary follicles will be stimulated to grow still more and they will develop a number of fluid filled vesicles (______). Continued growth of the these through _____ of its vesicles to form a single fluid filled cavity (_____) gives rise to the ______.

secondary follicles


fusion


antrum


graafian (mature) follicle

Definition: a mound that supports the oocyte formed by granulosa cells around the graafian follicle

cumulus oophorus

Definition: ring of granulosa cells surrounding the oocyte

corona radiata

Definition: thin gel-like layer of proteins and polysaccharides between the oocyte and corona radiata

zona pellucida

____ stimulates the granulosa cells to produce increasing amounts of ____ as the follicles grow.

FSH


estrogen

As the follicle develops, the ______ completes its first meiotic division. It does not ____. Only one cell (the ______) gets all the_____.

primary oocyte


form two complete cells


secondary oocyte


cytoplasm



Definition: smaller oocyte that eventually fragments and disappears

polar body

Unequal division ensures that the ovum will be ______ to become a viable embryo should fertilization occur. Second meiotic division of the secondary oocyte only occurs if the oocyte is_____.

large enough


fertilized

Definition: release of the secondary oocyte from the ovary into the uterine tubes

ovulation

By day ____ after the first menstruation, only ___ follicle has grown enough to become a fully mature graafian follicle. Other secondary follicles during that cycle _____ and _____ through a special form of apoptosis (______)

10-14


one


regress


degrade


atresia

The one follicle that grows large enough is protected from _____ and becomes so large it forms a _____ on the ovary surface. It _____ like a blister popping.

atresia


bulge


ruptures

If the released oocyte is not fertilized within a few days, it will ______. If a sperm cell passes through the ______ and enters the _____, the ovulated secondary oocyte will then undergo the _____. Like before, ______ occurs so that the majority of the cytoplasm goes with the zygote and another _____ is formed.

degenerate


zona pellucida


cytoplasm


second meiotic division


unequal division


polar body

After ovulation, the follicle still play an important role. With___ stimulation, the empty follicle undergoes structural and biochemical changes to become a ____. While the ovarian follicles secrete only ____, the corpus luteum secretes both_____ and _____. If fertilization does not occur, this regresses and becomes a nonfunctional _____.

LH


corpus luteum


estrogen


estrogen


progesterone


corpus albicans

_______ secretes FSH and LH which promote the cyclic changes in hormone production within the ovaries. FSH secretion is slightly _____ than LH secretion during the early phase of the______ while LH secretion ______ FSH secretion just prior to_____. Patterns of hormone secretion regulate the phases of the menstrual cycle.

anterior pituitary


higher


menstrual cycle


greatly exceeds


ovulation

Definition: periodic shedding of the stratum functionale of the endometrium of the uterus that becomes thickened prior to menstruation under the stimulation of ovarian steroid hormones; lasts 3-5 days on average

menstruation

Shedding during menstruation is accompanied by ____ caused by a fall in ____ and ____ secretion. The menstrual cycle lasts about ___ days on average but there’s individual variation.

bleeding


estrogen


progesterone


28

Definition: starts on the first day of menstruation and goes until ovulation (~ day 13)

follicular phase

During the follicular phase, some of the primary follicles begin ____, _____, and become _____. Onefollicle reaches maturity at the end of this phase becoming a _____. As the follicles grown, the granulosa cells produce increasing amounts of_____ (primary estrogen) which reach the highest concentration in the blood at about day ___ (2 days before ovulation).

growing


develop vesicles


secondary follicles


graafian follicle


estradiol


12

During the follicular phase, growth of the follicles and estradiol secretion are dependent upon ____, which is slightly ____ than ___ at the start of this phase. It stimulates the production of _____ in the granulosa cells so that the follicles become ______ to a given amount of FSH.

FSH


higher


LH


FSH receptors


increasingly sensitive



Increasing sensitivity to FSH is augmented by _____ which further stimulates the _____ in the follicles. As a result, the effect of FSH on the follicles ____ despite FSH levels in the blood _____. FSH and estradiol also stimulate the production of _____ in the _____ -- positive feed-back loop!

estradiol


production of new FSH receptors


increases


remaining constant


LH receptors


graafian follicle

Rapid rise in estradiol secretion from the granulosa cells acts on the _____ to increase ____ pulses. At the same time, estradiol augments the ability of the _____ to respond to ____ resulting in an increase in ___ secretion.

hypothalamus


GnRH


anterior pituitary


GnRH


LH

Positive feedback of estradiol on the _____ results in an increase in ___ secretion late in the _____ that culminates in the ____. This begins 24 hours before _____ and peaks at about _____ beforeovulation. It triggers _____.

pituitary


LH


follicular phase


LH surge


ovulation


16 hours


ovulation

Since GnRH also stimulates the ____ to secrete both ___ and ____, there is a simultaneous, smaller surge in ____ secretion. This smaller surge serves as the stimulus for the _____ for the next month’s cycle.

anterior pituitary


FSH


LH


FSH


development of new follicles

LH stimulates the empty follicle to become the _____. _____ levels before ovulation are negligible before ovulation but rapidly rise to a peak level during the _____ (~__ week after ovulation). Highprogesterone levels in concert with _____ exert a negative feedback effect on ___ & ___ secretion.

corpus luteum


progesterone


luteal phase


1


estradiol


FSH


LH

Corpus luteum also produces ____ to further suppress FSH secretion. Negative feedback prevents _____ thereby preventing ____. Corpus luteum _____ at the end of this phase and the inhibition exerted on follicle development is removed. Decline of the corpus luteum causes ____ and ____ levels to drop to very low levels by day __ and results in _____.

inhibin


development of new follicles


multiple ovulations


regresses


estrogen


progesterone


28


menstruation

Definition: break down of the corpus luteum as a result of low LH

luteolysis

Developmentof the endometrium is timed by the cyclic changes in the secretion of ____ and _____ from the _____.

estradiol


progesterone


ovarian follicle

During the first phase of the development of the endometrium, ______, increasing amounts of _____ secreted by the _____ stimulate the growth of the _____ of the endometrium. It occurs during the _____ of the ovary. Estradiol may also stimulate the production of ______.

proliferative phase


estradiol


developing follicles


stratum functionle


follicular phase


progesterone receptors

During the second phase of the development of the endometrium, _____, increasing_____ secretion by the ______ stimulates the development of_____. Endometrium becomes a thick, highly ______, “spongy” tissue in preparation to nourish an embryo if fertilization occurs. It occurs during the ______ of the ovary.

secretory phase


progesterone


corpus luteum


uterine glands


vascular


luteal phase

The third phase of the development of the endometrium, the ______, consists of _____ and sloughing of the ______ of the endometrium as a result of the drop in ovarian ______.

menstrual phase


necrosis


hormone secretion

The oral contraceptive pill is typically made up of synthetic ___ combined with a synthetic ____ that’s taken once a day for 3 weeks after the _____. It causes immediate increase in blood levels of ____ & _____ which is maintained for the entire cycle. This results in ______ of ____ secretion so _____ never occurs.

estrogen


progesterone


last day of a menstrual period


estrogen


progesterone


negative feedback inhibition


gonadotropin


ovulation

The pill causes something like a false _______ (high estrogen & progesterone; low gonadotropins). Estrogen & progesterone still cause the endometrium to _____ and become secretory as it would in a normal cycle. One must stop taking pills for ____ in order to prevent abnormal growth of the endometrium. Its highly effective when _____.

luteal phase


proliferate


one week


taken properly

Definition: cessation of ovarian activity and menstruation; occurs at about age 50

menopause

During menopause, ovaries are depleted of ____ and stop secreting ____ and ____. The drop in estradiol is due to changes in the _____, not the _____. ___ and ___ secretion by the pituitary becomes elevated due to a loss of negative feedback.

follicles


estradiol


inhibin


ovaries


pituitary


FSH


LH

Loss of estradiol during menopause is most responsible for associated symptoms: _______ produce “_____” where a fall in core body temperature is followed by feelings of heat and profuse perspiration; _____ atrophy with loss of _____; increased risk for ______ and increased _____ progression.

vasomotor disturbances


hot flashes


urogenital


lubrication


cardiovascular disease


osteoporosis

The male ejaculates about ____ sperm into the vagina of a female. This huge number of sperm is needed because only about ____ will survive to reach the fallopian tube.

300 million


100

Definition: process where the sperm gain the ability to fertilize an ovum; occurs within the female reproductive tract

capacitation

Fertilization typically occurs within the ____. Asthe first sperm tunnels through the ______ of the oocyte, a number of changes occur that prevent another sperm from _____. Within 12 hours, the _____ of the ovum disappears & chromosome number is _____. Secondary oocyte that was ovulated____ 12-24 hours after ovulation if not ____.

uterine tubes


zona pellucida


fertilizing the same oocyte


nuclear membrane


restored to 46


disintegrates


fertilized

Sperm can survive up to ___ days in the female reproductive tract so fertilization can occur if intercourse takes place within a this period prior to _____.

3


ovulation

Definition: mitotic division of cells in the early embryo

cleavage

Definition: ball of 8 cells that enters the uterus about 3 days after ovulation

morula

Definition: hollow structure formed by the embryo consisting of 2 parts

blastocyst

Definition: part of the blastocyst that will become the fetus; cells are called trophoblastcells

inner cell mass

Definition: surrounding structure of the blastocyst that will become part of the placenta

chorion

Blastocyst implants in the uterus at day ___ post _____. About____% of all pregnancies are lost due to a failure to implant and consequently are not recognized as pregnancies.

6


ovulation


75

Definition: promotes abortion by blocking progesterone receptors of the endometrial cells

RU486 (mifepristone)

When combined with a small amount of _____ which stimulate contractions of the myometrium, _____ causes the endometrium to ____, carrying the embryo with it. It is ____% effective at terminating pregnancies of ___ days or less.

prostaglandins


RU486


slough off


96-99


49

Definition: secreted by the trophoblast cells of the chorion before implantation occurs

chorionic gonadotropin

hCG is identical to ___ in its effects and therefore maintains the _______ past the time it would otherwise regress. This maintains the secretion of ____ & ______ preventing menstruation. Secretiondeclines by the ____ week of pregnancy because by 5-6 weeks, the _____ takes over.

LH


corpus luteum


estradiol


progesterone


10th


placenta

Definition: layer of the inner cell mass that formsthe nervous system & skin

ectoderm

Definition: layer of the inner cell mass that formsthe gut and its derivatives

endoderm

Definition: layer of the inner cell mass that forms muscle, red blood cells, & connective tissue

mesoderm

As implantation of the blastocyst occurs, the endometrium undergoes the _______ (increased cellular growth & accumulation of glycogen).

decidual reaction

Both maternal & fetal tissues come together to form the _____. This serves as an ______ protecting the developing the embryo. Blood vessels of the endometrium remodel into _____ that produce a ____ vascular resistance so that more _____ flows into the placenta.

placenta


immunologically privileged site


dilated tubes


low


maternal blood

Definition: fluid filled bag containing the embryo with its umbilical cord

amniotic sac

The amniotic sac is initially______. Later, the ____ increases and composition is altered by ____ from the fetus.

isotonic


volume


urine



Maternal and fetal blood are brought close together within the placenta but _____. Maternal blood is delivered to and drains into _____ located near the _____. Placenta serves as the site for _____ and ______ exchange between maternal and fetal blood.

never mix


cavities


fetal arteries


gas


molecule

Placenta has a high ______. Like the liver, it produces a number of enzymes that convert hormones and exogenous drugs to _____ preventing potentially dangerous molecules in maternal blood from _____.

metabolic rate


less active molecules


harming the fetus

The placenta secretes _______ & ______.

chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)


chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS)

Definition: has LH-like effects & thyroid stimulating ability like TSH; secreted by placenta

hCG

Definition: has actions similar to growth hormone and prolactin; secreted by placenta

hCS

hCS, along with ____ from the mother’s pituitary produces a _____-like effect: it promotes_____ increasing plasma fatty acids, it causes ______ by maternal tissue increasing blood glucose concentrations, and ______. This effect serves to ensure sufficient _____ for the placenta and fetus which use it as their primary energy source.

growth hormone


diabetic


lipolysis


glucose-sparing


polyuria


glucose

Definition: excretion of large volumes of urine; results in dehydration and thirst

polyuria

As the ____ regresses, the ____ takes over sex-steroid production. The result is a rise in blood ______ levels more than ____x’s greater than those at the beginning of pregnancy. The placenta also produces large amounts of _____ so that the ______ in blood is ____ at the beginning of pregnancy and close to ___ toward full term. Placenta must be supplied with the _____ by the mother and fetus.

corpus luteum


placenta


estrogen


100


progesterone


estrogen/progesterone ratio


100:1


1:1


precursors to estrogen and progesterone



Definition: sequence of powerful contractions of the uterus needed to expel the fetus

labor

Definition: child birth

partuition

Labor contractions are stimulated by ____ (produced by _____ and secreted by the ____; also secreted by the ____) and _____ (cyclic fatty acids with paracrine functions produced within the ____).

oxytocin


hypothalamus


posterior pituitary


uterus


prostaglandins


uterus

Rising _____ levels stimulate the uterus to make receptors for ____ & ____ and to produce ____ between the myometrial cells. Increase in receptors make the uterus more sensitive to these hormones.

estrogen


oxytocin


prostaglandins


gap junctions

Gap junctions ____ and ____ contractions of the uterus.

synchronize


coordinate

These changes in the uterus are mediated by ______ by the placenta which increases ____ levels.

corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)


estrogen

Each mammary gland consists of ____ lobes and each lobe is divided into lobules which contain the ______ that secrete ____.

15-20


glandular alveoli


milk

Clustered alveoli secrete milk into a series of ______ which converge to form a series of ______ which in turn form a ______ that drains at the _____.

secondary tubules


mammary ducts


lactiferous duct


tip of the nipple

Lumen of each lactiferous duct _____ just beneath the surface of the nipple to form an ____ where _____ during nursing.

expands


ampulla


milk accumulates

Definiton: hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates the production of milk after partuition

prolactin

Secretion of prolactin is controlled by _____ which is produced by the hypothalamus in response to high _____ levels. High levels of this hormone also directly inhibit the _____ so that while thebreasts are prepared for ____, they are prevented from secreting ____ until after partuition.

prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)


estrogen


mammary glands


lactation


prolactin

Expulsion of the placenta results in a drop in ____ and _____ drops resulting in ____ production. The act of _____ maintains high levels of ____ secretion through a neuroendocrine reflex triggered by _____. This also triggers _____ secretion from the _____ which results in the ____.

estrogen


PIH


milk


nursing


prolactin


suckling


oxytocin


posterior pituitary


milk-ejection reflex/milk letdown

Breast feeding supplements ______ of the infant.

immune protection

In utero, the fetus receives _____ across the placenta from the mother which provides passive immune protection for the first ____ after birth. _______ are passed from mother to infant in breast milk providing additional passive immune protection within the baby’s ______.

IgG antibodies


3-12 months


IgA antibodies


intestine

Milk contains _____, _____, and _____ that promote the development of the baby’s system of _____.

cytokines


lymphocytes


antibodies


active immunity