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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
site of fetal development
copulatory canal
egg typically fertilized here
fallopian (unterine) tube
becomes erect during sexual excitement, made of erectile tissue, sensitive to the touch

duct extending suprolaterally from the uterus
fallopian (unterine) tube
partially closes the vaginal canal; a membrane
produces oocytes, estrogens and progesterone
fingerlike ends of the uterine tube
name the 3 layers of the uterine wall
which layer of the uterine wall contracts during birth
female gametes
ova (one per month)
shape and location of ovaries
paired almond shaped, lies in the true pelvis and help in place by mesentry of the ovary
broad ligament of the ovaries
large fold of peritoneum that hangs from the the uterus and uterine tubes
suspensory ligament of the ovaries
lateral continuation of the broad ligament and attaches ovary to lateral pelvic wall
developing gametes
immature egg cells going through meiosis
tunica albuginea
fibrous capsule that surrounds the ovary, covered by simple cuboidal epithelia called germinal epithelia
ovarian cortex
houses developing gametes called oocytes
ovarian medulla
loose connective tissue containing largest blood vessels, nerves and lymphatic vessels (enters through the hilum)
main substance of the ovary is divided into 2 portions. Name them.
ovarian cortex
ovarian medulla
ovum production
female sperm/egg
location of oogenesis
takes place inside the ovarian follicles in the ovaries as part of the ovarian cycle
stem cells, complete miotic divisions before birth
ovarian cycle
menstrual cycle as it relates to the ovary and is composed of 3 phases
3 phases of the ovarian cycle
1) follicular
2) ovulation
3) luteal phase
ovarian cycles start when?
at puberty under the influence of estrogen
primordial follicle
consists of an oocyte surrounded by a single layer of flat supportive cells called follicular cells
follicular phase
dormant stage, ready to develop
at the start of each ovarian cycle, 6-12 primordial follicles start to grow initiating it and lasting for 2 weeks
primary follicle
primordial follicle starts to grow, cells become cuboidal and oocyte grows larger
day 3-6
structure of primary follicle
double layer of theca cells
enlargement is due to estrogen
more atresia
secondary follicle
liquor follicle appears
theca more developed
granulose cells produce estrogen under influence of FSH
zona pellucida visible
day 8-10
connective tissue that condenses around the exterior of the follicle
zona pellucida
glycoprotein coat, a protective shell that a sperm must penetrate to fertilize the oocyte
Phases 2 of Oogenesis
ovulation occurs when
occurs halfway through each ovarian cycle
oocyte exits the ovaries and is swept into the uterine tube, the signal to begin is a sudden release of large quantities of LH
tertiary follicle
day 11-14
ready for ovulation
theca is well developed
granulosa cells are secreting estrogen
first meiosis is complete
function of ovulation
oocyte and follicular cells are shed into the abdominal cavity and collected by the fimbria
corpus luteum
endocrine gland in the luteal phase, secretes estrogen and progesterone
corpus luteum degenerates into
corpus albicans when there is no implantation
unterine cycle
menstrual cycle as it relates to the endometrium and consists of 3 phases
3 phases of the uterine cycle
menstrual phase
day 1-5
functional layer is shed
proliferative phase
day 6-14
functional layer rebuilds
day 15-28
endometrium prepares for implantation of the embryo
menstrual cycle
day 1: first day of menses
day 7-14: follicle develops, secretes estrogen
day 14: ovulation
day 14-28: luteal phase
luteal phase
corpus luteum forms from follicle, secretes progesterone, eventually becomes corpus albicans
uterine tube
receives the ovulated oocyte and are the site for fertilization
uterine tube is also called
fallopian tube
infundibulum of the uterine tube
opens into the peritoneal cavity
uterine ampulla
forms half the lenght of the uterine tube, place of fertilization
medial 3rd portion of the tube
histology of the endometrium
ciliated and non-ciliated simple columnar epithelia
purpose of cilia in the uterine tubes
ciliary movement, along with peristaltic contractions move the ova
mucosal lining of the uterine cavity, in 2 layers
name the 2 layers of the endometrium
functional and basal
bulky middle layer consisting of bundles of smooth muscle that contract during childbirth to expel the baby
visceral peritoneum
blood supply of the uterus
uterine arteries from the internal iliac
ovarian arteries from the abdominal aorta
uterus consists of 4 areas
rounded region superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes
major portion of the uterus
narrowed region inferior to the body
fibrous ring that keeps the uterus closed during pregnancy
functional layer of endometrium
sheds during menses
basal layer of endometrium
permanent layer deep to the functionalis
function of the uterus
protection of the embryo/fetus
nutritional support
waste removal
ejection of fetus at birth
fibromuscular tube
receptacle for intercourse
passageway for menstrual products
birth canal
made of 3 layers: outer adventia, muscularis and inner mucosa
pocket surrounding the uterine cervix
labia majora
female counterpart to the scrotum, encloses the labia minora
labia minora
encloses the vestibule which protects the external openings of the urethra and vagina
acromosal reaction
cortical reaction
fertilized zygote enters the uterus at day 4
acromosal reaction
enzymes in the acromosome dissolve part of the zona pellucida
cortical receptors
destroys the receptors for further sperm
when does fertilization occur
when the chromosomes from the male and female gametes come together within the ovum
implantation occurs when
day 6
blastoclast stage
fertilized egg before implantation
layer that will provide the embryo with nourishment
formed from trophoblasts and endometrium
function of the placenta
becomes an endocrine gland
provides nutrition and waste removal
the act of giving birth
280 days, 266 days after last menstruation
3 stages of parturition
dilation: 1st contraction to 10cm
expulsion: from dilation to delivery
placental: delivery of the placenta
mammary gland
modified sweat gland
produces milk
structure of the mammary gland
15-20 separate lobes separated by suspensory ligaments each containing several secretory lobules
lactiferous ducts
leaving the lobules, converges into 15-20 lactiferous sinuses
lactiferous sinuses
milk is stored here until released at the tip of the nipple, influenced by oxytocin