• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cholesterol guide lines for LDL
<100 Optimal
101-129 Near Optimal
130-159 Borderline High
160-189 High
>190 Very High
Cholesterol guide lines for HDL
>40 Optimal
>60 High
Cholesterol guide lines for total cholesterol
<200 Optimal
200-239 Borderline High
>240 High
Disease of large arteries. It affects arteries in most of the vascular beds, but is most aggressive in the coronary, carotid, cerebral, iliac, renal, popliteal arteries and the thoracic and abdominal aorta. It is a systemic disease.

Vascular disease includes atherosclerosis and essential hypertension, and has reached epidemic proportions. 40% of all cause mortality is due to vascular disease.
Nitric oxide
Nature's atheroprotective molecule. NO production is stimulated by statins, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and organic nitrates.

NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase, which inceases cGMP which, in turn, increases calcium sequestration into the SR and thus promotes vasodilation.
Atherosclerotic syndromes
Acute MI and angina pectoris
Acute myocardial infarction
The interruption of blood supply to part of the heart, causing some heart cells to die.

The overriding concept in acute MI is managing tissue ischemia. Myocardial energenics require that O2 supply always meet or exceed O2 consumption. When this is not met, ischemia results and contractility in the ischemic myocardium falls and the myocytes become increasingly at risk for developing life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The primary strategy is to restore myocardial energetics toward normal.
Angina pectoris
Severe chest pain brought on by myocardial ischemia.
Variant angina
Severe chest pain brought on by myocardial ischemia.. Coronary flow is reduced below O2 demand. Also called Prinzmetal's angina.
Stable angina
Severe chest pain brought on by myocardial ischemia. O2 demand is elevated above coronary flow. Also called effort angina.
How is late stent thrombosis reduced?
Long term aspirin and clopidogrel therapy.
Macrolide antibiotic immunosuppressant which, when applied locally, has strong antiproliferative actions and inhibits cell cycle progression in vascular cells.

When coated on stents, sirolimus is slowly released over the first few weeks of stent placement, and impressively reduces restenosis after stent placement.
The breakdown (lysis) of blood clots by pharmacological means.

t-PA (tissue plasminogen factor; Alteplase, Reteplase) activates inactive tissue plasminogen to active plasmin, which lyses the thrombus from within.

Streptokinase is streptococcal protein complexed with proactivator plasminogen, which also activates inactive tissue plasminogen.
Angioplasty (PCTA)
Patients presenting with stable or unstable (but not variant) angina are frequently referred for catheter based stent placement (PCTA) for long term relief.

Anticoagulation with heparin is required and anti-platelet therapy (aspirin and IIB/IIIA inhibitors) is added and maintained if stents are used.
Bypass surgery (CABG)
Patients presenting with stable or unstable (but not variant) angina are frequently referred for CABG for long term relief.
Peripheral vascular disease
Includes all diseases caused by the obstruction of large arteries in the arms and legs. PVD can result from atherosclerosis, inflammatory processes leading to stenosis, an embolism or thrombus formation. It causes either acute or chronic ischemia (lack of blood supply), typically of the legs.
Treatments for acute MI
Aspirin, nitroglycerin, nasal oxygen, morphine, beta-blocker, and ACE inhibitor

POSSIBLY - thrombolysis or drug eluting stents
Treatments for CAD
Aspirin, ADP inhibitors, GP IIB/IIIA inhibitors
Treatments for variant angina
Organic nitrates and calcium channel blockers
Treatments for effort angina
Beta-blockers, nitrates, and calcium channel blockers
Treatments for unstable angina
Anti-platelet drugs, anticoagulation drugs, vasodilator therapy, and beta-blockers

More frequently, patients presenting with stable and unstable (but not variant) angina are referred for catheter-based (PTCA) stent placement or surgical (CABG) revascularization for long-term relief.