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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is the first step in getting energy from fatty acids
FREE the fatty acid from lipids.
what is major type of lipid fatty acids stored in
Triacylglycerols in adipose tissue
What are the three phases of lipid catabolism?
1: fatty acid mobilization (STAGE 1)

2. fatty acid activation (STAGE 1)

3. fatty acid oxidation (STAGE 2/3)
What are the three STAGES of lipid catabolism
Stage 1. Mobilization/activation of fatty acids

Stage 2: F.A. Oxidation to Acetyl CoA
Stage 3: Acetyl CoA oxidation via CAC
how many acetyl CoA's are produced per TAG?
number of carbons/2
How are F.A./TAG's freed from adipose cells?

what enzyme?
Break down TAG into glycerol and fatty acids, one at a time.

how is lipase activated?
what does it do?
by hormonal regulation (glucagon, epinephrine, norepin, ACTH

hydrolyzes TAG's into glycerol + fatty acids.
how is lipase inhibited?
by insulin; insulin says STORE what you just ate as energy. so you don't want to break down TAG's.
Step 2 in fatty acid catabolism:
activation? how many steps?
-transfer fatty acid to CoA. two steps:

1. Hydrolysis of ATP to form phosphoester bond (fatty acid bound to AMP) and PPi. (acyl adenylate)

2. Break phosphoester bond and form thioester bond - gives acyl CoA + AMP
where does fatty acid activation take place?
in cytoplasm
what enzyme catalyzes F.A. activation (both steps)?
Acyl CoA synthetase
what are the two products of fatty acid degradation?
Activated acyl group
activated acetyl group
what are the f.a. metabolism enzymes
1. acyl coA dehydrogenase
2. enoyl coA hydratase
3. hydroxyacyl coA dehydrogenase
4. beta-ketothiolase
what is ATP yield per molecule of palmitate
what is yield per palmitate?

how many ATP used


2 for activation
what gives more ATP per gram, and how much more than the other: fat or glucose
FAT: gives 2.5 times as much ATP per gram of fat than gram of glucose.
What is the first step of F.A. syntheis?

Activation of Acetyl Co-A - commitment to f.a. synthesis.
CARBOXYLATION - gives malonyl CoA.

enzyme: acetyl coA Carboxylase
what significant thing is required to start f.a. synthesis?
ATP cleavage to ADP + Pi.
what is significant about acetyl CoA carboxylase?
-It is allosteric; affected by hormones.
Significant differences between f.a. synthesis/degradation:
-ACP versus CoA
-Reductions use NADPH (synth) vs. NAD+ for oxidation (degrad)
Difference between bacterial/mammalian fatty acid synthesis:
Enzyme - complex vs. free enzymes.
what is the similarity between ACP and Coenzyme A?
both have a phosphathiene arm, but CoA has an ADP where ACP has a protein so it's a macro CoA
what transfers acetyl and malonyl from CoA to ACP?
General Fatty Acid Synthase characteristics to know:
-7 active sites
-one single polypeptide chain
Domain 1:
Acyl transferase
Malonyl Transferase
Condensing Enzyme

All on D1 of fatty acid synthase
All on Domain 2
keto reductase
enoyl reductase

acyl carrier protein
all on domain 2 of f.a. synthase
How does fatty acid synthase work?
Malonyl CoA transfers from MT to ACP
Acetyl CoA transfers from AT to CE.
The two condense; then reduction at 3 other sites. Then transfer elongated f.a. to CE, ready for antother round.