• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why care about udder health?
-mastitis is the most frequent and costly disease of the dairy industry
-economic effects
-Inc. amount of non-saleable milk
-Dec. milk production
-Dec. milk quality (reduced quality bonus, reduced shelf life and cheese yield)
-Inc. treatments
-Inc. culling

$2.8 billion
-largest economic losses due to
-reduced production*
-culling (replacement cost)
US dairy industry facts
-Avg. herd = 115 cows
-97% family owned
-rising in the western US
Days in milk
-days since calving
Dry cow
-cow that is not milking and waiting to calve
-cease milking
-from calving to calving
-where cows are milked
-where the milker stands to milk cows
Cow prep or Prep
-procedure carried out at the udder just prior to milk harvest at each milking
-antimicrobial dip applied to every teat on every cow before milking
-antimicrobial dip applied to every teat on every cow after milking
Black and white holstein
Brown swiss
Danish red
Jersey x Holstein
Dairy production cycle
-Weaned (5-6 wks)
-Breed (13-15 mo)
-Calve (22-24 mo) --> 1st lactation
-Breed (50 days post calving)
-Dry-off (305 days post calving)
-Calve (45-60 days post dry off)
-Breed (50 days post calving)
Approximately how many lactations are there per cow
When is peak milk production
-approx. 60 days post-calving
Dairy cattle
-types of housing
-dry lot
-tie stall (colder climates)
-free stall
Milking system types
Small Farms
-Flat barn/Stanchion barn
-Tie-stall barn

Larger Farms
-Tandem parlor
-Herringbone parlor
-Parallel parlor
-Rotary parlor

Most cows are milked in what kind of milking facility
Problem with rotary/carousel parlor
-milkers don't get to interact
-each person has a specific job
Robotic milking system
-reduction in labor
Robotic milking system
-requires 3 months of training
-high up front costs
-life expectancy about 10 yrs
Bulk tank
-where the milk is collected to be transported to the milk company
-where samples for milk cultures can be collected
Bulk tank
-what milk can be collected
-milk from cows > 3 days fresh (colostrum)
-not on antibiotics/anti-inflammatories
-overmilking cow
-A: teat cup
-B: vacuum tube
-C: Claw
-D: milk line/hose
Automatic Detacher/Takeoff
-prevents overmilking
Key performance indicators for milking equipment
-mean claw vacuum (10.5-12.5"Hg)
-max claw vacuum fluctuation (<3"Hg)
-% use of manual mode when automatic takeoffs are used (<5%)
-D phase of pulsation cycle (>150-200 ms)
In addition to a properly functioning milking system, what else is needed to optimize production and prevent mastitis?
-optimal milk letdown
Milk letdown
-the process where the muscles surrounding the alveoli contract to move the milk into the ducts and cistern for efficient milk harvest
-A: Gland sinus
-B: Teat sinus
-C: Papillary duct
-milk production
-60% of milk storage in cows (differs between spp.)
-surrounded by
-myoepithelial cells
Pathway of milk letdown
-teat stimulation by milker, sound/smell of milking area, presence of milking unit
--nerve impulse to hypothalamus then to posterior pituitary
---post pituitary releases oxytocin
----oxytocin reaches myoepithelial cells in mammary gland
-----myoepithelial cells constrict causing milk to be secreted into the ducts
------milking unit removes milk from ducts and cisterns
What is important to get milk letdown on first lactation?
-human stimulation
Why don't you want the cows to become excited when getting milked?
-epinephrine can over-ride oxytocin
To achieve optimal milk letdown we must have _______
-proper milking procedures
What is important to know about milking procedures?
-timing is key
Pre-dip contact time (kill time)
-30 sec
Milking unit attached how long after pre-dip
-90-120 sec
Why is attachment of the milking machine from 90-120 sec after pre-dip important?
-time of highest oxytocin concentration
-considered overmilking if on either side of the window
-remove 2-3 streams of milk from each teat
-remove dip and bacteria
Why is stripping important?
-the first 2-3 streams of milk contain the highest somatic cell count, therefore milk quality is enhanced
-allows milker to look for clinical mastitis
-most powerful stimulation for oxytocin release
Why is stimulation of the teats important?
-inc. milk letdown --> dec. amount of time the milking unit is on the teats
-detrimental to teat health to leave the milking machine on the teats too long
-extended unit on times are additive and accumulative
Milking routines
-territorial (most popular)
Is there one procedure for optimal milk letdown?
-different herds use different procedures that suit their needs
Ways to monitor milking procedure?
-electronic monitoring systems to monitor milking efficiency