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11 Cards in this Set

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F-02 Use token economies and other conditioned reinforcement systems.

token economy:


list of target behaviors


tokens or points


menu of backup reinforcers




level system: move up a hierarchy of levels contingent on meeting specific performance criteria with respect to target behavior; expectations get higher and schedule of reinforcement thinned

F-02 Use token economies and other conditioned reinforcement systems.

select token


identify target behaviors and rules


select menu of backup reinforcers (preferably naturally occurring activities)


establish the ratio of exchange


write procedures to specify what happens if requirements no met: matter-of-fact statement


field-testing



F-02 Use token economies and other conditioned reinforcement systems.

implementation:


initial and ongoing training


manage tokens and exchange periodically


chronic rule breakers, reinforcer assessment and response cost




withdraw:


pair with social approval and verbal praise


requirements increased


reduce the duration in effect


introduce backup reinforcers in the untrained setting


increase the cost of desirable items


fade physical evidence of token

F-02 Use token economies and other conditioned reinforcement systems.

adv:


bridge the time/setting gap between a behavior and reinforcer


as generalized conditioned reinforcers, easier to management motivation




but need to consider intrusive, self-perpetuating, cumbersome, individualized and self-manegement

F-03 Use Direct Instruction.

A carefully sequenced curriculum of knowledge and skills


The explicit teaching of that curriculum


Flexible ability grouping, with children placed where they are at, within this curriculum sequence


Mastery learning, where children progress to the next level only when they have mastered the level they are at (just like in martial arts and swimming classes)

F-04 Use precision teaching.

standard celeration chart




learning best measured as a change in response rate


learning most occurs through proportional changes in behavior


past changes can project future learning

F-04 Use precision teaching.

Focus on Directly Observable Behavior


Frequency as a Measure of Performance


The Standard Celeration Chart


The Learner Knows Best

F-05 Use personalized systems of instruction (PSI).

small self-paced modularized units of instructions where study guides direct learners through the modules


mastery learning requires that the desired student performance be stated precisely using performance or learning objectives


student proctors are used to help with individual problems and lectures are given for motivational problems only

F-06 Use incidental teaching.

assesses the child's ongoing interests

follows the child's lead


restricts access to high interest items


constructs a lesson within the natural context, with a presumably more motivated child

F-07 Use functional communication training.

F

F-08 Use augmentative communication systems.

Sign Language


Paper based system/eye gaze/alphabetic boards


Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)


Voice Output Communication Aides (VOCAs)


Speech generating devices with dynamic display