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11 Cards in this Set

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F-02 Use token economies and other conditioned reinforcement systems.

token economy:

list of target behaviors

tokens or points

menu of backup reinforcers

level system: move up a hierarchy of levels contingent on meeting specific performance criteria with respect to target behavior; expectations get higher and schedule of reinforcement thinned

F-02 Use token economies and other conditioned reinforcement systems.

select token

identify target behaviors and rules

select menu of backup reinforcers (preferably naturally occurring activities)

establish the ratio of exchange

write procedures to specify what happens if requirements no met: matter-of-fact statement


F-02 Use token economies and other conditioned reinforcement systems.


initial and ongoing training

manage tokens and exchange periodically

chronic rule breakers, reinforcer assessment and response cost


pair with social approval and verbal praise

requirements increased

reduce the duration in effect

introduce backup reinforcers in the untrained setting

increase the cost of desirable items

fade physical evidence of token

F-02 Use token economies and other conditioned reinforcement systems.


bridge the time/setting gap between a behavior and reinforcer

as generalized conditioned reinforcers, easier to management motivation

but need to consider intrusive, self-perpetuating, cumbersome, individualized and self-manegement

F-03 Use Direct Instruction.

A carefully sequenced curriculum of knowledge and skills

The explicit teaching of that curriculum

Flexible ability grouping, with children placed where they are at, within this curriculum sequence

Mastery learning, where children progress to the next level only when they have mastered the level they are at (just like in martial arts and swimming classes)

F-04 Use precision teaching.

standard celeration chart

learning best measured as a change in response rate

learning most occurs through proportional changes in behavior

past changes can project future learning

F-04 Use precision teaching.

Focus on Directly Observable Behavior

Frequency as a Measure of Performance

The Standard Celeration Chart

The Learner Knows Best

F-05 Use personalized systems of instruction (PSI).

small self-paced modularized units of instructions where study guides direct learners through the modules

mastery learning requires that the desired student performance be stated precisely using performance or learning objectives

student proctors are used to help with individual problems and lectures are given for motivational problems only

F-06 Use incidental teaching.

assesses the child's ongoing interests

follows the child's lead

restricts access to high interest items

constructs a lesson within the natural context, with a presumably more motivated child

F-07 Use functional communication training.


F-08 Use augmentative communication systems.

Sign Language

Paper based system/eye gaze/alphabetic boards

Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

Voice Output Communication Aides (VOCAs)

Speech generating devices with dynamic display