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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Loftus and Palmer - Experiment 1 Method

*45 students, 7 films of different traffic accidents

*After each given a questionnaire with a critical question 'About how fast were the cars going when they ____ each other?

*Smashed, collided, bumped, hit and contacted

Loftus and Palmer Experiment 2 Results

*The mean speed estimated was calculated

*Word 'smashed' estimated around 41mph

*Word 'contacted' estimated around 30mph

Loftus and Palmer - Experiment 2 Method

*3 groups and shown a 1 minute car accident

*Group 1=smashed, group 2=hit and group 3=no question of speed

*Return 1 week later asked 10 questions and the critical question 'Did you see any broken glass?'

Loftus and Palmer - Experiment 2 Results

*Participants gave higher estimate in condition 'smashed' and more likely to assume their was broken glass

*Misleading post-event information changes the way information is stored

Loftus et al - Supporting Evidence Method

*Group 1 red datsun with a 'STOP' sign and Group 2 with a 'YIELD' sign

*After all ppts given a set of questions, half of each group had question 'Did another car pass the red datsun when it was at the YIELD' and the others had STOP

*Finally shown pairs of slides and had to identify if they were in the original sequence (one pair showed at a STOP another at a YIELD)

Loftus et al - Supporting Evidence Results

*75% of ppts who had consistent questions picked the correct slide

*Misleading information affect recall as Loftus and Palmer showed

Bekerian and Bowers

*Replicated the stop/yield study

*Gave the slides in the original order and found recall was now the same for the consistent and misleading groups

*Memories intact despite the misleading information

*Affects the retrieval rather than the storage

Yuille and Cutshall

*Interviewed 13 people who had witnessed an armed robbery in Canada

*4 months after the crime with 2 misleading questions

*Provided accurate recall not affect memory in real-life

Individual Differences - Wells and Olsen's

Review of EWT research concludes that although males and females may take an interest in different aspects of a scene the overall abilities is indistinguishable

Deffenbacher et al

*Meta-analysis of 18 studies looking into the effects of heightened anxiety on accuracy of EWT

*High levels of stress negatively impacted on the accuracy of EWT

Christianson and Hubinette

*Questioned 58 real witnesses to a bank robbery

*Those threatened in some way were more accurate in recall than those less emotionally aroused

*True 15 months later

Johnson and Scott/Loftus

*Weapon-focus effect

*2 conditions, man with a pen and grease on his hand, other arguing man with a knife and blood on his hand

*ppts shown 50 photos

*Condition 1: 49% and Condition 2: 33%

Yerkes-Dodson Law


*small to medium increases in arousal may increase the accuracy of memory

*too high levels interfere with it

Steblay/Loftus et al - AO2

*presence of a weapon does indeed reduce the chances of a witness correctly identifying the person holding it

*Monitored EW eye movements and found that the presence of a weapon causes attention to be physically drawn towards the weapon itself

Parker and Carranza

*Primary and college students in ability to correctly identify a target individual following a mock crime

*Children had higher rates of choosing than adults but were more likely to make errors


*651 adults in public asked to recall characteristics of a woman they had spoken to for 15 seconds 2 mins earlier

*Young and middle aged were more condiment than olders but no difference in accuracy

Memon et al

*Accuracy of young and older EW's

*When the delay between incident and identification was short (35mins) no difference in accuracy

*When delayed by one week the older witnesses were significantly less accurate

Anastasia and Rhodes - Own- Age Bias

*Individuals from 3 ages were shown 24 photographs and asked to rate attractiveness

*After a short filler they were shown 48

*Young and middle-aged ppts were more accurate than older participants but all age groups better with own age e.g. young=90%

Brigham and Malpass (The differential experience) - Own-Age Bias Explained

*Findings similar to own-race bias, more contact we have with our own age or race the better our memory would be

*Individuals usually encounter member son their own age group and become more expert at processing those faces showing better memory for them

Cognitive Interview - A01

Fisher and Geiselman

1. report everything

2. mental reinstatement of context

3. changing the order

4. changing the perspective


*53 studies and found a 34% increase in correct information from CI compared to SI

*Most of these used volunteer witnesses in the lab

Milne and Bull

*Undergraduates and children

*Inrerviewed using one component of CI compared against a control group told to 'try again'

*Recall was similar across all 4 however when interviewed using report everything and mental reinstatement, CI recall was significantly higher

Difficulty in establishing effectiveness

*Hard to evaluate because not only one procedure but a collected of related techniques

*Thames Valley Police use all other than changing perspectives

*Others only report everything and 'mental reinstatement' (Kebbel and Wagstaff)

Time Problems with CI

*Policer officers suggest that CI requires more time than is normally available

The enhanced CI

Fisher and Geiselman have added more techniques which causes greater demand thus the quantity and quality has become a critical issue

Stien and Memon

*In Brazil (LEDC) current SI is interrogative

*Women from a cleaning staff watched video of an abduction

*Compared to SI produced more forensically rich information (CI)

*Will increase the incidence of miscarriages of justice