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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
sensation
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
p. 139
bottom-up processing
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
p. 139
perception
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling usto recognize meaningful events and objects
p. 139
top-down processing
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
p. 139
psychophysics
the study of relationships between the physical charcteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them
p. 140
absolute threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
p. 140
subliminal
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
p. 140
priming
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
p. 141
difference threshold
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time(just noticeable difference)
p. 142
Weber's law
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage rather than a constant amount
p. 142
sensory adaptation
diminsihed sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
p. 142
wavelength
the distance from the peak of one light or sound waveto the peak of the next
p. 144
hue
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names "blue," "green," etc.
p. 144
intensity
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as dtermined by the wave's amplitude
p. 144
retina
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
p. 145
accomodation
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
p. 145
rods
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray;necessary for perihperal and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
p. 145
cones
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions;detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations
p. 145
optic nerve
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
p. 146
blind spot
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there
p. 146
fovea
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
p. 146
feature detectors
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, suchas as shape, angle, or movement
p. 147
parallel processing
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision
p. 148
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors-one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue-which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color
p. 150
opponent-process theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes(red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision
p. 150
audition
the sense or act of hearing
p. 151
frequency
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a in a given time
p. 152
pitch
a tone's experienced highness or lowness, depends on frequency.
p. 152
middle ear
the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones(hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that conentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window
p. 153
cochlea
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
p. 153
inner ear
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semiciruclar canals, and vestibular arcs
p. 153
gate-control theory
the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in large fibers or by information coming from the brain
p. 157
sensory interaction
the principle that one sense may influence another, as whn the smell of food influences its taste
p. 159
kinesthesis
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
p. 161
vestibular sense
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance
p. 162
gestalt
an organized whole
p. 163
figure-ground
the organization of the visual field in to objects that stand out from their surroundings
p. 163
grouping
the perceptual theory to organize stimuli into coherent groups
p. 163
depth perception
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional; allows us to judge distance
p. 165
visual cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
p. 165
binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes
p. 165
monocular cues
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
p. 166
perceptual constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging(having consistent lightness, color, shape, size) even as illumination and retinal images change
p. 167
color constancy
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
p. 167
perceptual adaptation
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
p. 172
perceptual set
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not the other
p. 173
extrasensory perception(ESP)
the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. Said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition
p. 176
parapsychology
the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis
p. 176
retinal disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; By comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance-the greater the disparity(difference) between the two images, the closer the object
p. 165