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100 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A collection of computers that communicate to one another over transmission lines
local area networks (LANs)
connect computers that reside in a single geographic location on the premise s of the company that operates the LAN
wide area networks (WANs)
connect computers at different geological locations. Used for a company that has multiple locations
a network of networks. An internet connects LANs, WANs, and other internets
The Internet
the largest of inernets used for email and websites
a set of rules that two communication devices follow
a special purpose computer that receives and transmits messages on the LAN
network interface card (NIC)
a hardware component that physically connects a device to the switch
onboard NIC
an NIC built into a computer, found commonly on newer computers
MAC (media access control) Address
a unique identifier within each NIC
unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable
a cable used to transfer data whose cables are twisted to reduce wire interference over long distances
optical fiber cables
uses light rays for signals, can handle much more traffic than a UTP cable
IEEE 802.3 Protocol (Ethernet)
most common protocol, refers to specific hardware characteristics, as well as how to package and deliver information
10/100/1000 Ethernet
specification of transmission speeds, 10, 100, 1000 MBPS

**1000 doesn't equal 1024, and bits doesn't equal bytes***
wireless NIC (WNIC)
an NIC that is wireless instead of using a physical cable
Access Point
must be able to transfer information between multiple protocols
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
1. Provides you with a legit Internet access
2. Serves as your gateway to the Internet
3. Pays for the Internet
Analog vs. Digital Information
Analog is in a wavy format, whereas digital refers to a 1001010011 format.
a device that converts an analog signal into a digital signal
dial-up modem
a modem that uses a telephone line to transfer its conversation
DSL modem
(digital subscriber line) a modem that uses a telephone line to transfer data but doesn't interfere with telephone communication
Asymmetric & Symmetric
ADSL & SDSL, refer to the speeds at which data is sent and received via a DSL modem, symmetric refers to the same speed for inbound and outbound traffic, whereas asymmetric means that inbound traffic is heaver than outbound.
cable modem
transfers high-speed data through using cable tv lines
Narrowband (Dial-Up)
lines with transmission speed < 56 kbps
Broadband (DSL & Cable)
lines with transmission speed > 256 kbps
network of leased lines
A WAN connection alternative. Communication lines are leased from telecommunication companies and connected into a network. The lines connect geographically distant sites
access devices
specialty computers that connect each site of a company to the transmission lines
a special-purpose computer that moves network traffic from one node of the network to another
public switched data network (PSDN)
a WAN alternative - a network of computers and leased lines that is developed and maintained by a vendor that leases time on the network to other organizations
point of presence (POP)
the location at which each site of an organization connects to thew PSDN network
Frame Relay
a protocol used with PSDNs, can process traffic in the range of 56 kbps to 40 Mbps. Simplest and easiest, but slowest protocol
Asynchrononus transfer mode (ATM)
a PSDN protocol, can process speeds from 1 to 156 Mbps. More expensive than Frame Relay, but faster.Can support both Voice and Data communication.
the process of transforming clear text into coded, unintelligible text for secure storage or communication
encryption algorithms
the codes used to encrypt information, most commonly used is DES, 3DES, and AES
a number used to encrypt the data, applied to the original message to produce the coded message
Internal firewall
a firewall that sits inside the organization's network
Packet-filtering firewall
a firewall that examines each packet and determines whether to let the packet pass. To make this decision, it examines the source address, he destination address, and other data
Perimeter firewall
a firewall that sits outside the organization's network. It is the first device that Internet traffic encounters
Point-to-Point Protocol
a Layer-2 protocol used for networks that involve just 2 computers, hence the term point-to-point. PPP is used between a modem and an ISP as well as on some networks of leased lines
Public Key/Private Key
a special version of asymmetric encryption that is popular on the Internet. With this method, each site has a public key for encoding messages and a private key for decoding them
Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
a protocol that uses both asymmetric and symmetric encryption. when used, a browser address will contain https://
Symmetric encryption
an encryption method whereby the same key is used to encode and decode the same message
Transport layer security (TLS)
a protocol, using both asymmetric and symmetric encryption, that is a newer version of SSL
a virtual, private pathway over a public or shared network from the VPN client to the VPN server
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
a WAN connection alternative that uses the Internet or a private internet to create the appearance of private point-to-point connections. In the IT world, the term virtual means to appear to exist
Access Control List (ACL)
a list tha encodes the rules stating which packets are to be allowed through the firewall and which are to be prohibited
Asymmetric Encryption
an encryption method whereby different keys are used to encode and to decode the message, one to encode then another to decode, slower than symmetric encryption
an indication that a web browser is using the SSL/TLS protocol to ensure secure communications
Accounting and Finance Information Systems
systems that support accounting functions, such as budgeting, cash management, accounts payable and receivable, and financial reporting
Calculation System
the very first information systems. the goal of such systems was to relieve workers of tedious and repetitive calculations. these systems were labor-saving devices that produced little information
Contingent Liability
a liability that could possibly, but not necessarily will, occur. Failure to adequately secure a company's data, for example, could produce a contingency liability
Cross-departmental system
the third era of computing systems. In this era, systems are designed not to facilitate the work of a single department or function, but rather to integrate the activities of a complete business process
Cross-functional system
synonym for Cross-departmental system. "the third era of computing systems. In this era, systems are designed not to facilitate the work of a single department or function, but rather to integrate the activities of a complete business process"
Customer relationship management (CRM)
The set of business processes for attracting, selling, managing, and supporting customers
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
the integration of all the organization's principal processes. ERP is an outgrowth of MRP II manufacturing systems, and most ERP users are manufacturing companies.
Functional System
The second era of information systems. The goal of such systems was to facilitate the work of a single department or function. Over time, in each functional area, companies added features and functions to encompass more activities and to provide more value and assistance.
Human Resources Information System
Systems that support recruitment, compensation, evaluation, and developement of employees and affiliated personnel
Islands of automation
The structure that results when functional applications work independently in isolation from one another. Usually problematic because data is duplicated, integration is difficult, and results can be inconsistent
Manufacturing Information Systems
Information systems that support one or more aspects of manufacturing processes, including planning, scheduling, integration with inventory, quality control, and related processes
Operations Information Systems
Systems that maintain data on finished goods inventory and the movements of goods from inventory to customer
Process-based System
The third era of computing systems. In this era, systems are designed not to facilitate the work of a single department or function, but rather to integrate the activities in the entire business process
Pull Production Planning
responds to customer demand
Push Production Planning
Make so many items then sale that many items
Radio Frequency Identification Tag (RFID)
computer chip attached to goods in transit that identifies shipping date, content, expiration date, etc.
Separation of Duties and Authorities
an internal control that requires that different people be responsible for different portions of activities involving receipt and disbursement of a company's funds
E-Commerce (B2B, B2C, B2G)
The buying and selling of goods and services over public and private computer networks
B2B - Business -2- Business
B2C - Business -2- Customer
B2G - Business -2- Government
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system
An information system that maintains data about customers and all their interactions with the company
Drop Shipping
Process in which a customer buys a product from a vendor, and then the vendor has the item shipped directly to the customer from the manufacturer, without ever entering the vendor's custody
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
a protocol used to copy files from one computer to another. In interorganizational transaction processing, ftp enables users to easily exchange large files
Interorganizational Transaction Processing
IS processing of routine transactions between 2 or more organizations
Supply Chain Management (SCM)
An IS that integrates the primary inbound logistics business activity
Thick-Client E-Commerce
Interorganizational transaction processing in which software , in addition to the browser, is required on the client's computer
Thin-Client E-Commerce
Interorganizational transaction processing in which all you need is a browser to participate
Trojan Horse
Virus that masquerades itself as a useful program or file.
Virtual Organization
An organization that exists by means of electronic networks and service agreements, but doesn't exist in real life
Analysis paralysis
When too much time is spent documenting project requirements.
Beta testing
The process of allowing future system users to tr out the new system on their own. Used to locate program failures just prior to product shipment.
Brooks's law
"Adding more people to a late project makes the project later."
Component design phase
The third phase in the SDLC, in which developers determine hardware and software specifications, design the database (if applicable), design procedures, and create job descriptions for users and operations personnel.
Cost feasibility
One of four dimensions of feasibility
Implementation phase
The fourth phase in the SDLC, in which developers build and integrate new system components, test the system, and convert to the new system.
Maintenance phase
The fifth and final phas of the SDLC, in which developers record requests for changes, includiing both enhancements and failures, and fix failures by means of patches, service packs, and new releases.
Organization feasibility
One of the four dimensions of feasibility.
Parallel installation
A type of system conversion in which the new system runs in parallel with the old one for a while. Parallel installation is expensive because the organization incurs the costs of running both systems.
A group of fixes for high-priority failures that can be applied to existing copies of a particular product. Software vendors supply patches to fix security and other critical problems.
Phased installation
A type of system conversion in which the new system is installed in pieces across the organization(s). Once a given piece works, then the organization installs and tests another piece of the system, until the entire system has been installed.
Pilot installation
A type of system conversion in which the organization implements the entire system on a limited portion of the business.
Plunge, direct, or big-bang installation
A type of system conversion in which the organization shuts down the old system and starts the new system. Because of the risk of failure in the new system, organizations should avoid this conversion style if possible.
Product quality assurance (PQA)
The testing of a system. PQA personnel usualy construct a test plan with the advice and assistance of users.
Requirements analysis phase
The second phase in the SDLC, in which developers conduct user interviews, evaluate existing systems, determine new forms/reports/queries, identify new features and functions, including security, and create the data model.
Schedule feasibility
One of the four dimensions of feasibility
Service pack
A large group of fixes that solve low-priority software problems. Users apply service packs in much the same way as they would apply patches, except that service packs sometimes have hundreds to thousands of fixes in them.
System conversion
The process of converting business actuvuty from the old system to the new.
System definition phase
the first phase in the SDLC, in which developers, with the help of eventual users, define the new system's goals and scope, assess its feasibility, form a project team, and plan the project.
Systems development / System analysis and design
The process of creating and maintaining information systems.
System analysts
IS professionals that understand both business and technology. They are active throughout the systems development process and play a key role in moving the project from conception to conversion and, ultimately, maintenance. They integrate the work of programmers, testers, and users.
System development life cycle (SDLC)
The classical process used to develop information systems. These basic tasks of systems development are combined into the following phases: system definition, requirements analysis, component design, implementation, and system maintenance (fix or enhance).
Technical feasibility
One of the four dimensions of feasibility.
Test plan
Groups of sequences of actions that users will take using the new system.
The fiction that one phase of the SDLC can be completed in its entirety and the project can progress, without any backtracking, to the next phase of the SDLC. Projects are seldom that simple.