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86 Cards in this Set

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Define Exercise

Performance of physical exertion for improvement of health or correction of physical deformity

What is the performance of physical exertion for improvement of health or correction of physical deformity


What is the biological study of functions


Define Physiology

The biological study of functions

As exercise intensity increases, HR...


As exercise intensity increases, blood lactate...

Increases slowly then suddenly spikes

As exercise intensity increases, blood pH...

Remains steady then suddenly drops

As the duration of exercise increases, core body temp...

Increases then plateaus

What is homeostasis

Maintenance of a constant and "normal" internal environment

What is steady state?

The physiological variable is unchanging, but not necessarily "normal"

What is it called when the physiological variable is unchanging, but not necessarily "normal"?

Steady state

What is the non-biological control system

Negative feedback to maintain homeostasis

Sensor 》control center 》effect

Non-biological control center

C6 H12 O6

Glucose (blood sugar/plasma glucose)

What is gluconeogenesis?

The synthesizing of glucose

Gluconeogenesis uses what to synthesize glucose?

Protein, lactate, pyruvate

Glucose is synthesized through


What is glycogenesis?

Synthesizing glycogen from glucose

What is the method of using glucose to synthesize glycogen?


Where is glycogen stored?

Muscle and liver

What is glycogen?

Stored form of CHO

Glycogen is stored in the body with...?

Lots of water

Approximately how much glycogen is stored in the body?

~2000 kcals (15g/kg of body weight)

This is the stored form of CHO


What are 3 roles of CHO in the body?

●energy source

●protein sparer

●metabolic primer

How do carbohydrates work as a protein sparer in the body?

When CHO is low, the body uses protein to create glucose through gluconeogenesis

How is CHO a metabolic primer?

CHO helps "prime" fat oxidation

After about an hour of exercise, glycogen is depleted to..


After approximately 2 hours of exercise, glycogen is

Nearly depleated

Triglycerides are composed of

3 fatty acids and a glycerol

C16 H32 O2 is an example of

A fatty acid

What is an example of a fatty acid?

C16 H32 O2

What is bioenergetics

The study of energy transfer in living things

The study of energy transfer in living things


What are the forms of energy?

Chemical, heat, mechanical

Chemical, heat, and mechanical are what?

Forms of energy

What is the 1st Law of Thermodynamics?

Oxygen = Aerobic

No Oxygen = Anaerobic

Chemical Reactions are tightly regulated by...


Enzymes help

Regulate the speed of bioenergetics

Catalysts that regulate the speed of reaction


Typically "ase"


Lower the energy of activation


Lock and key mechanism


What is the effect of body temp on enzyme activity

As body temp increases, enzyme activity increases, until a certain degree in which enzyme activity quickly drops

The effect of pH on enzyme activity

As pH increases, enzyme activity increases, until it passes the optimum pH range for enzyme activity

What enzyme helps turn ATP to energy?


ATP ---ATPase---> ADP + Pi + Energy

Anaerobic ATP production

●ATP-PC (phosphocreatine breakdown)

●Glycolysis (glucose & glycogen breakdown)

Forming ATP via breakdown of phosphocreatine

ATP-PC system

Formation of ATP via degredation of glucose and glycogen


Is the ATP-PC system aerobic or anaerobic


Is Glycolysis aerobic or anaerobic?


Fast way to synthesize ATP for a short reserve


Immediate source of ATP?


What enzyme is needed to get ATP from phosphocreatine?

Creatine kinase

What is creatine kinase?

An enzyme needed for the ATP-PC system.

How does the ATP-PC system work?

PC+ADP ---creatine kinase--> ATP+C

There are 4-6 times more _____ than _____ in a muscle

Phosphocreatine; ATP

What happens during glycolysis

Glucose and/or glycogen are broken down to create lactate and/or pyruvate

During the energy investment phase of glycolysis, how much ATP is required

Glucose requires 2ATP expenditure while Glycogen requires only 1ATP

During the energy generation phase of glycolysis, what is produced?

4ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate/lactate

Where do the 2 phases of glycolysis take place?

The sarcoplasm of the muscle

What happens to NADH after glycolysis?

If oxygen is present, NADH goes to the electron transport chain (ETC) to drop off electrons, if no oxygen is present, NADH combines with pyruvate to form lactate.

What are methods of Aerobic ATP production?

Krebs Cycle

●Electron Transport Chain

●Beta Oxidation

Krebs Cycle is also known as

The Citric Acid Cycle

During the Krebs Cycle, pyruvic acid is converted to


During the Krebs Cycle, Acetyl-CoA combines with ___ to form ___

Oxaloacetate; citrate

After citrate is formed in the Krebs Cycle, what happens to the citrate and what forms as a byproduct?

Citrate is metabolized to oxaloacetate and two CO2 molecules are given off

What is produced during the Krebs Cycle

3 molecules of NADH and 1 molecule of FADH

What is the purpose of the Krebs Cycle?

To complete oxidation of macronutrients

What happens to the NADH and FADH molecules formed in the Krebs Cycle?

They go to the Electron Transport Chain

What happens at the Electron Transport Chain?

NADH and FADH drop off their electrons and become NAD and FAD, then the electrons are used to produce ATP

How much ATP is produced from a molecule of glucose?

~32 ATP

How much ATP is produced from a molecule of glycogen?

~33 ATP

What happens in the mitochondria during the ETC process?

Oxidative phosphorylation

What happens to electrons in the ETC?

Electrons are removed from NADH and FADH then passed along a series of carriers (cytochromes) to produce ATP

What are cytochromes and where are they found?

Cytochromes are electron carriers that are found in the ETC which transfer electrons from NADH/FADH through the ETC

What is the final electron acceptor in the ETC and what happens when accepted?

Oxygen accepts the electron to form water.

How many ATP come from a single NADH?

2.5 ATP

How many ATP come from a single FADH?

1.5 ATP

What is Beta Oxidation?

The breakdown of Fatty Acids for energy

The breakdown of Fatty acids for energy is known as...

Beta Oxidation

Beta Oxidation chops fatty acids into...

2 carbon fragments

How much ATP is produced from one fatty acid molecule?


Beta Oxidation occurs in...

The mitochondria

Where does the Krebs Cycle occur?

The mitochondria

What happens to a free fatty acid during Beta Oxidation?

Free fatty acid is activated forming Fatty Acetyl-CoA. Fatty Acetyl-CoA sends fatty acid through Beta Oxidation while the Acetyl-CoA gets sent to the Krebs Cycle.