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85 Cards in this Set

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Cellular Respiration consists of which of the following?

All of the above:


Consumption of oxygen, production of carbon dioxide, and the oxidation of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to form adenosine triphosphate.

3 components of ATP

Adenine


Ribose Sugar


3 inorganic phosphates

Which energy substrates are used by skeletal muscle cells to produce energy anaerobically?

A,B: Glycogen & Phosphocreatine



Which energy substrate provides the greatest number of ATP from equivalent starting amounts (1 gram)?

Free fatty acids

T or F: Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and glucagon help regulate fuel supplies for use during exercise

True

Which energy substrate is a chain of glucose molecules chemically linked together?

Glycogen

Gluconeogenesis can occur by which of the following cycles?

A,C: Glycerol-glucose cycle, Cori Cycle

Glucose enters human muscle cells utilizing protein carriers. Which is correct?

A,B: GLUT-1 carriers are not regulated by insulin and function in resting muscle when blood glucose levels are stable.


-GLUT-4 transporters function when glucose and insulin levels are high, such as following a meal

Adenosine Triphosphate is:

A,B,C: The chemical agent that links the energy yielding and energy requiring functions in the cells


- Synthesized by adding Pi to ADP in an endergonic reaction


-Split into simpler compounds by addition of water (hydrolysis)

Beta-oxidation...

Does not directly utilize oxygen, but must be aerobic

Which energy substrate is derived from fat and can serve as a precursor for glucose formation during gluconeogenesis?

Glycerol

Which of the following is a characteristic of mitochondria?

contain their own DNA and are thus self-replicating when more are needed

Which energy substrate is transported in blood bound to albumin?

Free Fatty Acids

Which energy substrate requires the involvement of the urea cycle to remove NH3 from the body?

Amino Acids

1 example of substrate level phosphorylation:

ATP-Phosphocreatine

What is the major signal common to all energy production pathways that will activate the rate of limiting enzyme

Low levels of ATP and High levels of ADP

The carriers for energy and high-energy electrons during GLYCOLYSIS are________.

NADH

Where do the carbon atoms in pyretic acid end up following the Krebs cycle?

The become part of a carbon dioxide molecule and end up in the atmosphere

The movement of which ion across the membrane from the inter membrane space to the matrix causes ATP synthase to spin and make ATP?

H+ ions

Name the 6 carbon molecule that forms when Acetyl CoA joins its 2 carbons to a 4-carbon molecule during the Krebs cycle:

Citrate

Enzymes increase the likelihood of a chemical reaction occurring by lowering what?

the cost

Fats have more potential for producing ATP than any of the other macronutrients, mainly because…

They contain more hydrogen atoms

Which of the following is true regarding the ALACTIC ENERGY SYSTEM?

A,D: ATP and phosphocreatine are the energy substrates for this system


- This system has the highest energy system power but they lowest energy system capacity

O2 deficit:

Depends for energy on the splitting of ATP/PC, oxygen bound to myoglobin, and anaerobic glycolysis

The most important physiological reason for the fast component of EPOC is:

Restoration of myoglobin O2 stores and ATP-PC stores

A lactate level of approximately 10 mmol L-1 would indicate:

The results of a maximal workload

Blood lactate levels are NOT a result of:

The oxidation of pyruvate in the mitochondria

Supramaximal exercise is:

An exercise bout in which the O2 requirement is greater than VO2 max

Which of the following is the most common means of lactate removal?

Oxidation in cardiac or skeletal muscle

WHich of the following would you expect to result in the highest blood lactate level?

a 400 meter sprint

The total amount of energy that can be produced by an energy system

Total energy capacity

The maximal amount of energy that can be produced per unit of time

Total power capacity

The percentage of peak power drop-off during high-intensity, short duration work is called _________ __________ (can be measured during wingate tests)

Fatigue Index

The difference between the oxygen required during exercise and the oxygen supplied and utilized. Occurs on onset of activity.

Oxygen Deficit

Oxygen consumption DURING RECOVERY that is above normal resting values is called __________ ____________ _____________ ____________.

Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)

The ______________ ________________ are points on the linear-curvilinear continuum of lactate accumulation that appear to indicate sharp rises.

Lactate threshold

An individual uses 1.2 L/min of O2 and produces 1.12 L/min of CO2. His/her RER is:

0.93

The individual whose RER you just calculated is:

Burning primarily carbohydrate as a fuel

What is the MET level of someone exercising at an exercise intensity of 33 mL/kg/min?

9.4

Given the following information, determine if this test was a max effort.


Gender: F


Age: 40


HR max: 178 bpm ...

It was a max effort

What is the difference between RQ and RER?

One represents the ratio of CO2 and O2 at the cellular level, while the other represents the ratio of CO2 and O2 in expired air.

The term ___________ ____________ describes a situation that occurs in submax activity of long duration, or above 70% Vo2 max, or in hot and humid conditions where the oxygen consumption where the oxygen consumption increases, despite the fact that the oxygen requirement of the activity has not changed.

Oxygen drift

A _______ is a unit that represents the metabolic equivalent of multiples in the resting rate of oxygen consumption of any given activity.

MET

_______________ is the oxygen cost of walking or running at varying speeds.


Mechanical economy

Overload of the metabolic system can be monitored by which of the following?

Lactic acid levels

For which of the following 5 hormones does exercise training cause a blunted response (decreased secretion) during sub maximal exercise?

Glucagon, insulin, epinephrine, cortisol, growth hormone

The increased reliance on fat as a fuel as a result of aerobic training is called:

Glycogen sparing effect

To facilitate metabolic adaptations, which of the following training cycles should be incorporated?

Alternate hard and easy days of training

Which of the following is not a training adaptation that occurs in fat metabolism as the result of aerobic training?

A decrease in the level of plasma free fatty acids

Endurance training results in lower lactate levels at a given sub maximal workload due to:

decreased reliance on carbohydrate

A continuous aerobic training session performed at a steady-state pace for an extended period of time or distance is called:

Long Slow Distance (LSD)

An ____________ _____________ workout is an aerobic and/or anaerobic workout that consists of 3 elements: a selected work interval (usually a distance), a target time for that distance, and a predetermined recovery period before the next repetition of the work interval.

Interval training



A _____________ workout is a type of training session named from the Swedish word meaning "speed play", which combines the aerobic demands of a continuous run with the anaerobic demands of sporadic speed intervals.

Fartlek

Sympathetic stimulation of the cardio-accelerator nerve to the heart results in:

A, C: an increased force of contraction


- an increased rate of contraction

As the ventricles contract;

Pressure inside the ventricles increased dramatically

Rate pressure product is calculated as:

HR X SBP

The T wave reflects

ventricular repolarization

Total Peripheral Resistance can be calculated as:

MAP/Q

Under resting conditions, the heart ejects about ___ % of the blood that is returned:

50-60


The cardiovascular system is regulated by:

Mechanical events, neural control, and neurohormonal control

Stimulation of the cardiac accelerator center in the brain would result in which of the following responses?

C&D only, Increased heart rate


- increased cardiac contractility

The release of renin from the kidneys ultimately results in:

increased blood volume

______________ ______________ ______________ is defined as the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole.

End diastolic volume

_____________ ____________ is the amount of blood ejected from the ventricles with each beat of the heart (EDV-ESV)

Stroke Volume

Resistance presented to the contracting ventricle is a definition for:

Afterload

The ___________ are known as the resistance vessels because they can change their diameter allowing them to control the flow of blood.

arteries

_________________ ______________ is another name for veins, owing to their distensibility, which enables them to pool large volumes of blood and become reservoirs for blood.

Capitance vessels

The ___________ __________ is an equation used to calculate cardiac output from oxygen consumption and arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vo2 diff).

Fick Equation

Cardiovascular drift are changes in the cardiovascular variables that occur during:

prolonged, heavy submax exercises

Cardiovascular drift is a phenomenon that results in a ____________ in heart rate and a _____________ in stroke volume with prolonged sub maximal exercise.

rise, decline

During the isovolumetric relaxation period, the tricuspid valves would be…

closed

Blood flow (Q) is ultimately the result of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and total peripheral resistance (TPR). With that being said, which of the following would apply to an INCREASE of blood flow that would accommodate increased exercise intensity:

B,C: Vasodilation of the arteries leading to the skeletal muscle, vasoconstriction to the splanchnic area, and increased systolic blood pressure.


-Venoconstriction leading to an increased venous returned

Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), renin, and aldosterone respond to which of the following stimulus?

All of the above: Decreased atrial pressure, increased hemoconsentration, and decreased arterial pressure respectively.


-Decreased plasma volume


- the need for salt and/or water retention

T or F: Increased movement leads to stimulation of the cardio-accelerator center resulting in increased sympathetic influence over the cardiovascular system.

True

If the EDV of the left ventricle was 150 mL, and following contraction, the ESV was 60 mL, what was the ejection fraction?

60%

_________________ _________________ gas exchange between the blood and air filled chambers of the lungs

external repiration

_______________ _______________ gas exchanges between systemic blood and tissue cells

internal respiration

According to Boyle's law, the ability for air to enter the lungs during inspiration is the result of:

A decrease in intrapulmonary pressure below atmospheric pressure as a result of increased lung volume.

T or F: Obesity has been shown to increase lung compliance resulting in difficulty breathing and sleep disorders such as sleep apnea.

False

The term for hemoglobin when it is bound to oxygen

oxyhemoglobin

Each hemoglobin molecule can carry up to _____ oxygen molecules

4

Carbon dioxide is primarily transported in the body…

Converted to bicarbonate ions and transported in the plasma

According to the Bohr effect, a rightward shift of the oxyhemoglobin-dissociation curve…

all of the above

What is the minimum partial pressure difference between the alveoli and the tissues at rest for oxygen?

100 mmHg in the alveoli and 40 mmHg in the tissues.

T or F: The partial pressure difference required for carbon dioxide movement/diffusion is much smaller that that of oxygen and is due to the increased solubility of carbon dioxide in blood plasma.

True