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89 Cards in this Set

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Lactate thresholds
Points on the linear curvilinear continuum of lactate accumulation that appear to indicate sharp rises, often labeled as the first (LT 1) and second (LT 2) lactate thresholds.
Ventilatory thresholds
VT 1 and VT 2

No causal mechanism is implied with LT 1 and LT 2.

Something other than the accumulation of lactic acid must be operating to explain the ventilatory response.
Onset of blood lactate accumulation = LT 2
Why is Lactic Acid a problem?
Hydrogen ion that dissociate from La that cause a problem to the body.

1. pH decreases
2. Pain : H+ ions stimulate pain nerve endings located in the muscle.
3. Performance Decrement: ATP production is reduced due to changes in enzymes (rate limiting enzymes become inactive in low pH), membrane permeability.
Muscle fatigue is also a problem
Mass action effect
Lactate clearance is proportional to the amount of substrate and product present. The more substrate available and the less product, the faster the reactions proceeds and vice versa.
Half life of lactate
Half of the lactate is removed in about 15-25 min no matter what the starting level is.

Near resting levels are achieved in about 30-60 min.
Activity increases the rate of lactate removal.
The rate of lactate removal by the liver appears to be the same whether an individual is resting or exercising. However, during exercise blood flow is increased, as is the oxidation of lactate by skeletal and cardiac muscles.
At what intensity should an active recovery be performed (for lactate removal)?
Curve is both an inverted U-shape and skewed toward the lower VO2max percentage values, with the optimal rate being between 29% and 45% of VO2 max.
Male vs. Female Anaerobic characteristics
Neither the local resting stores of ATP per kilogram of muscle nor the utilization of ATP-PC during exercise varies between the sexes.
However, in terms of total energy available from these phosphagen sources, males will exceed females because of muscle mass differences.
Males vs. Females
Avg males produce higher absolute work output than females.
The peak power of women is very similar to mean power of men.
The fatigue index does not show a significant sex difference, indicating that both sexes tire at same rate.
Anaerobic exercise characteristics of children
-Availability of ATP-PC
Local resting stores of ATP per kilogram of muscle weight appear to be the same for a child an adult
Anaerobic exercise characteristics of children
-Accumulation of Lactate
Blood lactate values are lower in children than adults.
No meaningful sex differences in children in the ability to accumulate lactate (although girls' values are slightly higher throughout the growth period).
Anaerobic exercise characteristics of children
Muscle Enzyme Theory:
PFK activity is lower in children than adults. As a rate limiting enzyme of glycolysis, produces lowered activity.

Sexual maturation theory:
Increase in glycolytic capacity in children is related to the hormonal changes that occur to bring about sexual maturation. (Testosterone?)

Neurohormonal regulation theory:
SNS activity is lower in children than adults. Child maintains a higher liver blood flow (because SNS stimulates hepatic vasoconstriction), more lactate can be cleared. Therefore children are not deficient in production of lactate, they are just better at removal.
Anaerobic characteristics of Older Adults
Local resting stores of ATP-PC are reduced and levels of creatine and ADP are elevated in muscles of the elderly.

Decline in maximal lactate values with age

Peak power declines approximately 6% for each decade
Measurement of heat energy liberated or absorbed in metabolic processes
Direct calorimetry
Measures heat production. Measurement requires the use of specially constructed chambers in which the heat produced by a subject increases the temp of the air or water surrounding the walls and is thereby measured.
An indirect calorimetry method for estimating heat production or calorimetry in which expired air is measured an analyzed for the amount of oxygen consumed an carbon dioxide produced.
Oxygen consumption
The amount of oxygen taken up, transported, and used at the cellular level
Carbon dioxide produced
The amount of carbon dioxide generate during metabolism
Oxygen Drift
A situation that occurs in submaximal activity of long duration, or above 70% VO2 max, or in hot and humid conditions where the oxygen consumption increases, despite the fact that the oxygen requirement of the activity has not changed
Modified Balke
For this test, the speed as kept constant. The grade was 0% for the first minute and 2% for the second minute; it increased 1% per minute thereafter. At the treadmill limit of 25% grade, speed was the increased. Because the increments are small, the individual should be able to adjust to the load in just 1 min for most of the submaximal portion.
Maximal Oxygen Consumption
The highest amount of oxygen an individual can take in and utilize to produce ATP aerobically while breathing air during heavy exercise
Respiratory and Metabolic Responses to Heavy Static Exercise
(Figure 5.5)
Causes small respiratory and metabolic responses during the actual contraction. However, each of these variable exhibits an increased rebound effect immediately upon cessation of the exercise before slowly returning to pre-exercise values
Cost of Breathing
During rest, the respiratory system uses about 1-2% of the total body oxygen consumption, or 2.5 mL/min of oxygen. The cost is higher in children than in adults/elderly
Respiratory Exchange Quotient

Ratio of volume CO2 produced divided by the volume of O2 consumed on a total body level

(non protein metabolism)

RER = VCO2 / VO2
Respiratory Quotient

Ratio of the amount of CO2 produced divided by the amount oxygen consumed at a cellular level.

RQ = CO2/O2
How to determine if VO2 max was achieved?
A) HLa = Blood lactate of more than 8 mmol
B) RER = greater than 1.1
C) Plateau of graph. Look at previous stages and differences. Then look for expected change from that. If get less than half of that, then at plateau
D) HR = achievement of age predicted max heart rate. 220-age
E) RPE = how hard the subject thinks he is working. Rating of perceived exertion. 6-20 scale corresponds to HR. A little less consistent at the ends
RER values
Closer to 1.0 = more heavily the exercise is relying on carbs
Around 0.74 = ATP being generated by fat as substrate
Around 0.85 = prob a mix between fat and carbs
Dynamic Resistance
(Aerobic exercise?)
Dynamic resistance exercise has a static component, so if predominantly anaerobic, but has an aerobic component
In fact, Wingate as up to 30% aerobic component!!

More reps, longer duration of resistance exercise, greater aerobic energy contribution.
Dynamic Resistance vs. Static

Aerobic Exercise
Dynamic resistance exercise has less aerobic contribution than most aerobic endurance activities, but higher than that of purely static exercise.
Caloric Equivalent
The number of kilocalories produced per liter of oxygen consumed
Caloric Cost
Energy expenditure of an activity performed for a specified period of time. It may be expressed as total calories (kcal), calories, or kjoules per minute or relative to body weight.
Caloric Expenditure
CHO - 4 kcal·g-1
Fat - 9 kcal·g-1
Protein - 4 kcal·g- 1
Caloric Examples
Caloric cost (kcal/min) =
O2 consumed (L/min) x caloric equivalent (kcal/LO2)

RER = .91
O2 consumption = 2.15 L/min
Calculate caloric cost of 30 min of exercise

The caloric equivalent for an RER of .91 is
4.936 kcal/LO2 (see table 5.4) x
2.15 O2/min x 4.936 kcal/LO2 =
10.61 kcal/min

Calculate caloric cost for 30 min of exercise
10.61 kcal/min x 30 min = 318.3 kcal
Caloric Example w/o RER
If you know O2 consumed during exercise, but DO NOT know the RER:

Can estimate caloric value by X 5 kcal/L O2
This is close to the average caloric equivalent, but results will likely be different.
A unit that represents the metabolic equivalent in multiples of the resting rate of oxygen consumption of any given activity

MET = O2consumed/3.5
1MET = 1kcal/kg/hr
METs used clinically and in leisure activities to montior exercise intensity
Oxygen cost for steady state
Rest 3.5 ml/kg/min
Walking .1 ml/kg/min for each m/min
Running .2 ml/kg/min for each m/min
Vertical rise 1.8 ml/kg/min for each m/min
Motion Sensors
--Pedometer: can be used to record the distance an individual travels by foot (quantity)
Electronic motion sensors that measure both frequency (or quantity) of movements and intensity of movement

Activity Recalls and Questionnaires
* self- or observe activity report * must know activity and intensity, duration & body weight * difficult if want total expenditure * self-reporting inconsistent * compliance, honesty issues * large sample size

Ex. IPAQ, NZPAC, Baecke
Mechanical Efficiency
The percentage of energy input that appears as useful external work
Gross Efficiency
(Work Output/ Energy Expended) x 100

best for specific workloads, speeds
Net Efficiency
(Work Output/ Energy Expended = Resting Metabolic rate for the same period) x 100

Energy expended is corrected for resting metabolic rate

efficiency of work done, but not realistic
Delta Efficiency
(Difference in work output between two loads/ Difference in energy expenditure between the same two loads) x 100

best for determining effect of speed or work rate on efficiency; relative energy cost

(Ex. 8 min mile vs. 10 min mile)'

Most accurate means for determining efficiency
Efficiency calculations
All assume submaximal steady state conditions.
Deciding factor of efficiency
Different methods give different results VO2 is deciding factor in efficiency: as energy cost increases, efficiency decreases and vise versa
The oxygen cost of walking or running at varying speeds

O2 cost increases linearly over wide range of velocities
Walking: add 0.1 ml/kg/min above rest to O2 cost of the walk

Running: add 0.2 mL/kg/min above rest to O2 cost of the run

Outdoor running > Treadmill
Influence of Sex on Economy
Influence of Sex is unclear

Men: can expend more, less, or same amount of energy as females

Females: Have lower VO2 max will be working at a higher % of VO2 max than the male.
Influence of Age on Economy
Running economy improves for both sexes with age
Factors effecting lower economy in children
1) High basal metabolic rate
2) Large surface area/mass area ratio
3) Immature running mechanics
4) Less efficient ventilation
5) Decreased anaerobic capacity
Velocity at VO2 max
The speed at which an individual can run when working at his or her maximal oxygen consumption; based both on submaximal running economy and VO2 max
Heretiability of Aerobic Characteristics
Not that heritable. Training is possible

Anaerobic seems to be heritable.
-- Training program is specific to goal
-- Depends on energy system to be stressed; to improve performance
Exception: Aerobic training can provide a base for both aerobic and anaerobic exercises
--Applies to major muscle groups and exercise modality: repeated training of active groups yield improved performance
1) Manipulate time and distance
2) Monitoring lactic acid levels
Time or Distance Technique

Long Slow Distance (LSD) Workout
A continuous aerobic training session performed at a steady state pace for an extended time or distance
Time or Distance Technique

Fartlek Workout
A type of training session, named from the Swedish word meaning "speed play" that combines the aerobic demands of a continuous run with the anaerobic demands of sporadic speed intervals
Time or Distance Technique

Interval Training
An aerobic and/or anaerobic workout that consists of three elements: a selected work interval (usually a distance), a target time for that distance, and a predetermined recovery period before the next repetition of the work interval.
Types of recovery for interval training
Fast Relief:
light aerobic activity, flexibility -good to use for recovery from ATP-PC & aerobic work

Work Relief:
Work relief – moderate aerobic activity -good to use for recovery from HLa work
40-50% workload is needed to clear lactate
Lactate Monitoring Technique
Test individual in laboratory and record both RPE (Borg' rating of perceived exertion) and lactate values at each progressive workrate.

Can also use heart rate to estimate HLa levels during training.
6 categories of training
3 low:
recovery, extensive aerobic, intensive aerobic
- Used for low-mod aerobic activity

3 high:
HLa threshold, VO2max, anaerobic
- Used for transition from higher intensity aerobic to anaerobic activity
Evident when a given distance or workload can be covered in a faster time with an equal or lower perception of fatigue or exertion.

Key seems to be sufficient recovery time between high intensity workouts.
One adaptation occurs, workload should be progressed further if improvement is desired

Limit to metabolic adaptions can be achieved in approx 10 days to 3 weeks if training is not progressed
Training Volume
The total amount of work done, usually expressed as milage or load.

Increment in training volume should no exceed more than 10% per week.
Adaptation to training can be maintained w/ reduced volume

Sprint performance declines more quickly than endurance due to reduction in volume
Training tapering
A reduction in training prior to important competitions that is intended to allow the athlete to recover from previous hard training, maintain physiological conditioning and improve performance.
Warm Up
--Elevated muscle temperatures increases the rate at which metabolic processes in the cells can proceed (enzymes)

--Oxygen is more readily released from RBC and transported to mitochondria

--Decreased oxygen deficit at the initiation of exercise
Cool Down
--Lactate is dissipated faster during an active recovery
Regulatory Hormones
a. Rise in glucagon less
b. Suppression of insulin less
c. Rise in Epi/NE less
d. Rise in GH less
e. Rise in cortisol less

Overall effect: blunted response = less disruptions at submax levels = more work can be done before max exercise is reached!
Rate limiting step for glucose utilization in muscles is glucose transport. Glucose transport is a primary function of GLUT-4 transporters. Exercise training can increase GLUT 4s.
Increased reliance on fat as a fuel (glycogen sparing effect). Responsible for lowered RER values.

Because glycogen supplies last longer, there is a delay in fatigue and greater endurance.
Influence of Age and Sex on Metabolic Training Adaptations
Both males and females respond to the same training with the same adaptations.
Carbs Intake
Normal = 4.5 g/kg/day

Training = 8-10 g/kg/day
Glycemic Index
A measure that compares the elevation in blood glucose caused by the ingestion of 50 g of any carbohydrate food with the elevation caused by the ingestion of 50 g of bread.

High = fast elevation in glucose and insulin
Ex. sugars, sports drinks, grains, pasta, cereal

White Bread = 100

Low = slower rise in both glucose and insulin
Ex. Fruits, legumes, and dairy products
Recommended amount
0.8 g/kg
When is higher protein intake needed?
1. Training in which the primary goal is to increase muscle mass
- 1.2-2.0 g•kg•day
- 15% of total calories

2. Endurance training
- 1.2-1.4 g•kg-1•day
Sports anemia
A transient decrease in red blood cells and hemoglobin levels
Major fuel for exercise of low to moderate intensity

20-30% fat for sedentary and moderately active individuals

65-80 g per day
Organic substance f plant or animal origin that are essential for normal growth, development, metabolic processes, and energy transformations

No evidence to suggest that exercise training may cause an increased need for vitamin c, b complex vitamins, and vitamin E at high altitudes.

No evidence that vitamin supplementation in an adequately nourished individual improves exercise or performance
Elements not of animal or plan origin that are essential constituents of all cells and of many functions in the body
Of 14 microminerals, only 5 have been implicated as affected by or potentially beneficial in enhancing exercise training.

Zinc, chromium, copper, selenium, iron

. The required intake of each micromineral is less than 100 milligrams per day, and the total body content of these minerals is less than 5 grams
A variety of elements are required to support the biochemical processes, many play a role as electrolytes or in a structural role

Ex. calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfur
Carbohydrate Loading
Glycogen Supercompensation

A process of nutritional modification that results in an additional storage of glycogen in muscle fiber than be approximately three to four times the normal level.
Pre-Event Meal
50-100 g of carbohydrate should be included, with only enough fat and protein to ward off hunger pangs.
Feeding During Exercise
To maintain blood glucose levels and prevent fatigue.

Beverages containing 4-8% carbohydrate is optimal and well absorbed by the body.

High glycemic index foods should be ingested during exercise.
Fluid ingestion during and after Exercise
To avoid dehydration.

Water = majority of sports and workouts

Electrolyte/ Carb beverage = endurance events
Serious condition that not only affects performance but also can lead to brain damage/death.

Large quantities of water are ingested in an event lasting 4+ hours. Low sodium occurs.

Need to drink electrolyte beverages.
Anorexia Nervosa
Eating disorder characterized by marked self-induced weight loss accompanied by reproductive hormonal changes and an intense fear of fatness
Bulimia Nervosa
An eating disorder marked by an unrealistic appraisal of body weight an/or shape that is manifested by bingeing and purging behavior
Anorexia Athletica
An eating disorder occurring primarily in young, female athletes that is characterized by food intake less than that is required to support the training regimen and by body weight no more than 95% of normal.