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19 Cards in this Set

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Properties of energy levels

1.Energy level size increases as n increases

2. The energy of e-s in energy levels increases as n increases

3. The nember of electrons a level can hold: maximum population = 2n^2

4. Valence electrons

Outer most energy level e-s

Participate in chemical bonding (shared or transferred).


For group elements:

# Valence e-s = group number

Quantum Theory aka Quantum Mechanical Model of an atom

In this model, 4 quantum numbers give the location of electron.

The principle Quantum Number (n) aka energy level

Quantum number 1.

Sublevels: s,p,d,f

Orbitals: s,p,d,f

The orbital is where you have the highest probability of finding e- location.

Heisenburg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to know both the location and energy of an electron at the same time.

The orbital is where you have the highest probability of finding e- location.

Angular Momentum (l):

The shape of the orbital.

S l=0 sphere

P l=1 double sphere

D l=2 double sphere with ring

F l=3 flower

Magnetic Quantum Number (Ml)

Total number of orientations a particular orbital has in 3-D space

S ml = 0 1 orientation

P ml = -1, 0, +1 3 orientations

D ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, +2 5 orientations

F ml = -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3

7 orientations

Electron Spin (Ms)

2 electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spin.

Clockwise ^|


Counterclockwise |,


Electron order:

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s

Use periodic table, or

Why do electrons fill up n=4 before n=3 is full?

Energy levels get closer together as (n) quantum number increases. This causes sublevels to overlap.

(Because of this bohr diagram only show accurate ve- for atomic numbers < 18)

Degenerate Orbitals

They let a higher energy level go in between.

3p 3d

4p 4d

If an electron configuration ends in a degenerate orbital: completely fill or half fill with e-s from orbital below.

Hunds rule

Maximum number of e-s in degenerate orbital is the lowest energy configuration.

Electron Configurations of ions

Shorthand configs

Orbital diagrams

1. Spin

2. Box

3. Hunds rule, each orbital must have one electron before pairing. (All same spin)

4. Pauli's Exclusion Principle: paired electrons must have opposite spin.

Orbital diagrams 2

Periodic trends

1. Atomic size

Q .....q


Down and to the left.

Periods: +proton outweighs e-s

Groups: energy level increase (shield also)

2. Ionization Energy (IE)

Q ..... QQ


Atomic size

The size of an atom is half the distance between 2 nuclei in a molecule consisting of 2 identical atoms.

Q ---- Q

---- = 2r

r= size of one atom.

Ionization Energy (IE)

A measure of the amount of energy required to remove and e- from a gaseous atom or ion.

X (g) --> X^+ (g) + e-